attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

(redirected from Attention deficit)

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder



A persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, or both, occurring more frequently and severely than is typical in those at a comparable level of development. ADHD is the most commonly reported neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. The illness may begin in early childhood but may not be diagnosed until after the symptoms have been present for many years. The prevalence is estimated to be 3% to 5% in children; 4% in adults.


Signs may be minimal or absent when the person is under strict control or is engaged in esp. interesting or challenging situations. They are more likely to occur in group situations. Although behaviors vary widely, affected people typically exhibit motor restlessness, impulsivity, and difficulty concentrating on a single task or chore. They tend to do more poorly in school than one might predict based on assessments of their intelligence alone. While characteristics of ADHD are found in many people at one time or another, a key feature of ADHD is the excessive or unusual pattern of behavior outside normal bounds of exuberance or excitement. The findings must be severe enough to be maladaptive and inconsistent with specified levels of development, and last at least six months.



ADHD may sometimes be confused with other disorders.

The disorder is difficult to diagnose in children under age 5. It is important to distinguish ADHD from age-appropriate behavior in active children and from disorders such as mental retardation, primary learning disabilities, alteration of mood, anxiety, petit mal seizures, or personality changes caused by illness, family stress, or drugs. The criteria determined by the American Psychiatric Association include specific limits concerning the duration and severity of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. The findings must be severe enough to be maladaptive and inconsistent with specified levels of development.


In both children and adults, the domestic, school, social, and occupational environments are evaluated to determine contributing factors and their relative importance. Standard treatment includes behavioral and psychological therapy, environmental changes, and medication. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD include methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, atomoxetine, and pemoline. These agents, with the exception of atomoxetine, are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. Adverse reactions to CNS stimulants include decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, stomach ache, headache, jitteriness, and social withdrawal (the latter in children).

Behavior therapy for patients with ADHD includes positive reinforcement, time-out, response cost (loss of rewards or privileges for problem behaviors) and token economy (a combination of positive reinforcement and response cost). Combinations of drug therapy and behavioral therapies, or drug therapies alone, appear to have a more beneficial effect than behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, or parent skills training alone.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A condition in which a person (usually a child) has an unusually high activity level and a short attention span. People with the disorder may act impulsively and may have learning and behavioral problems.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Learning Breakthrough Program was developed for children with attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia and other learning disabilities.
The report provides an overview of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)'s therapeutic pipeline.
Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who report clinically significant impairment in executive function: results from a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.
The plan of the hyperactivity disorder and the attention deficit can be divided into the single intervention to multiple complex intervention therapies.
Attention Hyperactive Disorder - simple attention deficit disorder / attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Scientists have developed a way to evaluate new treatments for some forms of attention deficit disorder.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a real diagnosis with neurologically-based symptoms.
Drugs to treat attention deficit disorder were linked to an increase in sudden death among children, according to a government-sponsored study.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder- a review for family physicians.
She has opened the first clinic in Dublin offering the treatment, which is also specifically designed to attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyspraxia.
They're twice as likely as nonadopted peers to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, according to a study of adolescents adopted as babies.
By 'attention deficit' you must mean ADHD, short for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Full browser ?