The theme of atmospheres
within philosophy, aesthetics, and critical theory has developed steadily over the last two decades.
The great Russian 18th-century scientist Mikhail Lomonosov has been widely credited with the discovery of Venus's atmosphere
during the 1761 transit of Venus that he observed from St.
In the latest breakthrough for exoplanet science, a team using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope has obtained a crude spectrum for the upper atmosphere
of a super-Earth orbiting a dim red dwarf star 40 light-years away in Ophiuchus.
It's still unclear when scientists will have the tools to characterize extrasolar planets' atmospheres
with enough precision to recognize signs of life.
New laboratory experiments suggest that in the era just before the dinosaurs went extinct, extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
may have done the trick, boosting plant productivity to at least three times that of today's ecosystems.
: The more reducing mold atmospheres
(those rich in |H.sub.2~ and having a higher CO/C|O.sub.2~ ratio) tend to promote pinholing.
Also, he notes, similar simulations should shed light on the cratering rates on other celestial objects with atmospheres
, such as Venus, Mars, and Saturn's moon Titan.
The team reported their observations online April 11 in the Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres
In planetary atmospheres
, in contrast, the smaller, denser volume of material makes the scattering of incoming solar X rays dominate over interactions with the solar wind, says Dennerl.
Astronomers have long wondered what the atmospheres
of planets beyond the solar system might be like.
27 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH (ATMOSPHERES
) that a small but significant change in the way the atmosphere
circulates in the tropics may explain the increased dustiness during glacial times.
That impact and its reverberations, which compressed the volatile element to nearly 2 million atmospheres
of pressure and cooked it to 4,400 kelvins, lasted long enough for researchers to watch hydrogen's electrical resistivity drop to a value typical of metals such as cesium and rubidium at that temperature.