During different positions and transitions of Salat, movement occurs at almost all joints of the body,2 including shoulder complex, wrist joint, elbow complex, metacarpo-phalangeal joints, inter-phalangeal joints, temporo-mandibular joint during recitation, cervical, lumbar and thoracic spine along with atlanto-axial joint
, and joints of lower limb including hip, knee, ankle, metatarso-phalangeal and subtalar joints.6 The different postures and positions adopted during Salat comprises of contraction and relaxation at numerous muscles, and thus Salat is an excellent physical activity.2 Numerous positive effects occur at muscles due to regular physical activity and exercise.
Hawkins, "Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation (fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint
)," Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol.
Ogoke, "The management of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint
pain," Pain Physician, vol.
C1, C2 arthodesis is the treatment for many congenital or acquired diseases leading to instability or subluxation of atlanto-axial joint
, The occippito-atlanto-axial region is transition zone between the more standard vertebral design and the radically different skull.
In a study of jugular foramen, it was found that the right jugular foramen was divided into two compartments by the intrajugular process; the anterior and the posterior part, same as in present study11.In a research on dried skulls and cadavers, osteophytes on the articular surfaces of the median atlanto-axial joint
(n = 63), third occipital condyles (n = 3) and the free ossicles (n = 22) were found.12 It was observed in a case of pediatric Bow Hunter's stroke which resulted from a nearly complete occlusion of the vertebral artery of right sidedue to an abnormal spur arising from the right occipital condyle.13 This finding is similar to the present study where a spur originates from right occipital condyle.
(31) For example, cervical spine manipulation in patients with RA is considered an absolute contraindication due to instability of the atlanto-axial joint
and predisposition to transverse ligament rupture.
KEY WORDS: Atlas, Axis, Atlanto-axial joint
, posterior cervical pedicle screw fixation.
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joint and computerized tomography (CT) of atlanto-axial joint
This can lead to an unusually wide range of movement at some joints; including the atlanto-axial joint
. This joint is the highest joint in the spinal column, and it lies just at the base of the skull.
The influence of contraction duration in muscle energy technique applied to the atlanto-axial joint
. J Osteop Med.
(Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint
)," The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery--American Volume, vol.
A probable explanation for this can be found in the anatomy of the atlanto-axial joint
. The atlas holds the globe of the skull and its primary function is to provide support to the head.