SMAD3, ATF2, and JUNB were among the top directly related genes in these RA relative pathways (Supplementary Table S5).
ATF2 Is Upregulated and Correlates with Inflammatory Hyperfunction Characteristics of RA Tissue.
Induction of CHOP expression by amino acid limitation requires both ATF4 expression and ATF2
DeRossi et al., "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2
) in skin cancer," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
This work also reveals that the ratio of ATF2 to MITF in the nucleus of melanoma cells can predict survival in melanoma patients - relatively high amounts of ATF2 and correspondingly low MITF levels were associated with a poor prognosis.
disrupted the ATF2 gene in the melanocytes of mice harboring mutations often seen in human melanoma.
They showed that diatrizoate, iodixanol, and iothalamate, but interestingly not iohexol, induced the expression of ATF-2 (activating transcription factor-2) mRNA and phosphorylation of ATF2
in HEK293T cells in a time-dependent manner.
Once activated, the p38 MAPK pathway initiates the production of transcription factors including PAX6, p53, ATF1, ATF2
, and CREB and regulates the production of proinflammatory or apoptosis-associated genes [26, 27].
The following antibodies were used: JNK (#9258), p-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) (#4668), c-Jun (#9165), p-c-Jun (Ser63) (#9261), Ac-[H3.sup.K9] (#9649), Aclysine (#9814), p-[H3.sup.T11] (#9764), PCAF (P300/CBP-associated factor) (#3378), GCN5 (#3305), and ATF2
(#9226) (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA); [p21.sup.WAF1] (OP64, Calbiochem, Darmstadt, Germany); [beta]-actin (A5441, Sigma-Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany); Chk1 (sc-8408, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA); Ac-H3 (#06-599), Ac-H4 (#06-866), H2AX (#07-627), and p300/ CBP (CREB-binding protein) (#05-257) (Upstate, New York, NY, USA); p-Chk1 Ser317 (NB10092499, Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO, USA); [gamma]-H2AX (#05-636, Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany); and p300/CBP (NB120-3164, Acris, Herford, Germany).
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2
) is a transcription factor of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins, discovered in 1991 by Ozawa et al.
Principally, ERK is responsible for cell survival, because it can regulate c-Myc, activator protein 1 (AP-1), and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) , while p53, nuclear factor-[kappa]B (NF-[kappa]B), and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2
) are the targets for p38.
In HUVEC, an increased nuclear translocation of some components of these transcription factors was observed (p65 and p50 for NF[kappa]B and c-jun, cfos, and ATF2
for AP1) .