astrocytes


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Related to astrocytes: microglia, Oligodendrocytes

astrocytes

Star-shaped connective tissue cells of the nervous system that link nerve cells to blood vessels and, by wrapping round brain capillaries, help to form the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. Neurological connective tissue (neuroglial) cells.

astrocytes 

Neuroglial cells with many processes found in the central nervous system, the retina (especially the ganglion cells, the inner plexiform layers and the nerve fibre layer) and the optic nerve. Their function is believed to be nutritional and structural and to be involved in the clearance of neurotransmitters from within the synaptic cleft. Syn. Cajal's cells.

astrocytes (as´trōsī´ts),

n a large, star-shaped cell found in certain tissues of the nervous system. A mass of astrocytes is called astroglia. See also astrocytoma.
References in periodicals archive ?
Recently scientists have shown that astrocytes may communicate like neurons by shooting off, or releasing, chemical messages, called transmitters, to neighboring cells.
Human stem cell-derived astrocytes replicate human prions in aPRNPgenotype--dependent manner," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2017; jem.
Because inflammation is the common denominator in many brain disorders, better understanding of astrocytes and their interactions with other cell types in the brain could provide important clues into what goes wrong in disease.
14) Mice deficient for the genes in this pathway (Lif, gp130, Lifr, or Stat3) show impairment of astrocytic differentiation of NSCs in vivo, indicating that JAK-STAT3 signaling is indispensable for the production of astrocytes during brain develop ment.
We show for the first time that portions of synapses are literally eaten by astrocytes because of sleep loss," Bellesi told (https://www.
The specific expression of LacZ under the control of the hGFAP promoter means that it is feasible to specifically introduce other exogenous genes into astrocytes (Yeo et al.
The decline in astrocyte activation with disease progression is another mystery, she said.
Inflammatory changes in the form of higher levels of brain astrocytes are thought to be a very early indicator of disease onset," explains principal investigator Professor Agneta Nordberg at the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research at KarolinskaInstitutet.
For example, in astrocytes with an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- (ALS-) linked mutation in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase ([SOD1.
Smith and his colleagues dribbled glutamate--a chemical messenger commonly used by neurons--into a dish containing astrocytes modified to glow when calcium levels go up.
Although the effects of vitamin E on neuronal cells have been well documented, knowledge on astrocytes is still lacking and the concern on astrocytes could promote better protection to neuronal cells.
Astrocytes maintain high intracellular concentrations of certain antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C and antioxidant enzymes, which play a major neuroprotective role in brain resistance to the deleterious effects of superoxides (Lotharius et al.