At a more localized scale, the case-control survey in the inner core zone indicated that some ash trees
had persisted with and without Agrilus planipennis symptoms even while mortality rates were extremely high (Gandhi et al., 2007).
Galleries often etch the outer ring of sapwood, which ash trees
use to transport water up from the roots to the canopy.
Developed in 2001 by BioForest Technologies Inc., TreeAzin is an organic pesticide manufactured from the Indian neem tree designed to combat the onset of emerald ash borer (EAB), the emerald green beetle that destroys ash trees
by burrowing into the bark, eating the tree from the inside out and eventually killing it.
In summer, each adult female beetle lays an average of 80 eggs on ash trees
. After the eggs hatch, the larvae inflict their damage, tunneling beneath the bark of the "host" tree.
"EAB is 100 percent fatal to an ash tree
and the best science to date is that there is little that can be done to save ash trees
once they have been infected," according to the Michigan Department of Agriculture.
I knew hurleys were made from ash and that it was made from the bottom of the ash tree
Since then it has killed at least six million ash trees
in portions of Michigan and neighboring states and caused the local nursery industry at least $10 million in damages.
The large number of shoots and a great quantity of large leaves are considered as an adaptation of the ash tree
to survival under the browsing pressure of moose.
Now Adur and Worthing's parks team is carrying out an urgent study of the extent of the problem with two areas - The Gallops in Worthing and Lancing Ring in Adur - at particular risk due to the volume of ash trees
with dieback - also known as Chalara dieback - are more susceptible to honey fungus infection, which destabilises the tree and makes them prone to falling, according to SWT.
Efforts have been made by multiple agencies, governments, and organizations to stop the killing of black ash trees
by the emerald ash borer.
Professor Allan Downie, Emeritus Fellow at the John Innes Centre and coordinator of the Nornex consortium which carried out the research, said: "The identification of genetic markers for trees with low susceptibility to ash dieback is a large first step, one of many that will be needed in the fight to help ash trees
survive this disease epidemic." He added it was "astonishing" the science had come so far in such a short time.