The report identified extensive osteolytic destruction of the vertebral body with extension into the pedicles and superior articular processes
. The fracture appeared chronic and included retropulsion of the bone and 50% spinal canal compromise.
While comminution of these articular processes
may preclude fixation and necessitate excision, large isolated fragments of the posterior or lateral process may remain amenable to open reduction and internal fixation and may not affect overall outcomes negatively .
[C] As a fast and accurate manner of channel establishment, precise and targeted translaminar drilling of the hole avoids the likelihood of the occurrence of subsequent instability caused by large removal of articular processes
. [R] This surgical method is easy for HNP exposure and can provide an adequate view, including the HNP and the nerve structures, according to the surgeon's need.
Further investigation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bone oedema of the T6, T7 and T8 pedicles and superior articular processes
with early degenerative disc disease at the cervico-thoracic junction (Fig.
The foramen can be narrowed further by characteristic changes in the facet joints such as synovial cysts, osteoarthritis, or hypertrophy of articular processes
Verbiest (1977) illustrated that the developmental stenosis is due to the properties of the neural arch, pedicles, laminae and articular processes
in which the interpedicular distances are normal whereas lateral sagittal diameters are shortened due to thickened laminae and articular processes
Patients were placed in the prone position and standard posterior exposure was carried out and subtotal bilateral resection of articular processes
as well as laminectomy at L5 level were performed to decompress the nerve roots and facilitate the placement of cages.
CASE I A: The body and articular processes
were completely fused but the laminae showed partial fusion on left side.
Asymmetry of articular processes
in particular hypertrophy of articular processes
might have caused torticollis with severe constriction of cervical mobility .
Os sacrum was composed of 4 sacral vertebrae, appeared fused but the outlines of the transverse and articular processes
were visible in most specimens studied (Figure 3(a)).
Due to the contour of the thoracic laminae and general orientation of the articular processes
the zygapophysial joints appear to lie flat, close to the spinous processes with the prominent costotransverse joints lying more laterally (Figure 1).
According to the Subaxial Cervical Injury Description System (SCIDS), bilateral facet dislocation is defined as a disruption of both facet joints in which the inferior articular processes
of the cranial vertebra have translated anterosuperiorly over the superior articular processes
of the caudal vertebra.