arsenic poisoning

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arsenic

 (As) [ahr´sĕ-nik]
a chemical element, atomic number 33, atomic weight 74.92. (See Appendix 6.) It is toxic by inhalation or ingestion, and carcinogenic (see arsenic poisoning). In nature it occurs usually as one of its salts; in human environments it is often a pollutant in mining regions, and is used in dyes, household pesticides, and compounds used in agriculture. Arsenic compounds called arsenicals were formerly widely used in medicine.
arsenic poisoning poisoning due to systemic exposure to inorganic pentavalent arsenic. Arsenic is cumulative, storing permanently in hair, nails, and bone, and children are particularly susceptible. Arsenic is odorless and flavorless and has been found in elevated levels in the drinking water that flows through arsenic-rich rocks, leading to serious health problems in some countries. The antidote for arsenic poisoning is dimercaprol. Acute arsenic poisoning, which may result in shock and death, is marked by skin eruptions, swelling of eyelids and limbs, vomiting, diarrhea, and cramps. Chronic arsenic poisoning (called also arsenism), due to ingestion of small amounts over a long period of time, is marked by skin pigmentation with scaling, keratosis of the palms and soles, white lines on the fingernails, peripheral neuropathy, and confusion.
arsenic trioxide an oxidized form of arsenic, used in weed killers and rodenticides. It is also administered intravenously as an antineoplastic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

arsenic poisoning

Toxicity caused by arsenic, a toxic trace metal that is a key component of herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, wood preservatives and used in manufacturing glass and paints. The usual fatal dose is 100–200 mg; there are ± 1900 arsenic poisonings/year (US), 85% of which are accidental by children < age 6; the rest are adult suicides.
 
Clinical findings
Vague gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting) and neurologic (apprehension and shortness of breath) symptoms, and a classic sign—“garlic” breath—followed by dysphagia, tachycardia, severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea, then by renal and cardiac failure and circulatory collapse.
 
Treatment
Dimercaprol (BALS).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Epigenetic changes in individuals with arsenicosis. Chem Res Toxicol 24(2):165-167, PMID: 21291286, https://doi.org/10.1021/tx1004419.
4 shows exposure to arsenic via food stuffs and drinking water; Ingestion of arsenic causes arsenicosis and it occurs due to consumption of contaminated water for several years.
Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.
Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage.
Cutaneous malignant and premalignant conditions caused by chronic arsenicosis from contaminated ground water consumption: a profile of patients from eastern India.
Verma, "Disruption of skin stem cell homeostasis following transplacental arsenicosis; alleviation by combined intake of selenium and curcumin," PLoS One, vol.
Long-term exposure to As, especially through drinking water, can cause arsenicosis which is manifested as different types of cancers and skin allergies.
"Arsenicosis" is defined as a chronic health condition arising from prolonged ingestion of arsenic above the safe dose for at least 6 months, is usually manifested by characteristic skin lesions of melanosis and keratosis, occurring alone or in combination, with or without the involvement of internal organs/89
The Department of Health (DOH) on Thursday warned the public against health risks associated with drinking contaminated water and poor hygiene and sanitation as it reported several cases of diarrhea in Samar and arsenicosis, or exposure to high levels of arsenic, in Central Luzon.
Kayama, Burden of Skin Lesions of Arsenicosis at Higher Exposure through Groundwater of Taluka Gambat District Khairpur, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Environ.