Syndrome was diagnosed based on both symptoms and lesions in MRI.
Lesions in the thalamus and pons were more frequent in patients with anti-MOG antibodies, whereas lesions in medulla oblongata and area postrema
were more frequent in patients with anti-AQP4 antibodies.
Autoradiographic analyses confirmed the presence of nesfatin-1 receptors in several brain regions (cerebellum, cortex, area postrema
, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus), several peripheral organs (kidney, lung, and liver), including the endocrine tissues (adrenal gland, pancreas, pituitary, testis and adipose tissue) (14).
In rabbits, systemic ANGII acts reset arterial baroreflex control of HR to higher pressures through mechanisms involving the Area Postrema
, a brain stem region located near the base of the fourth ventricle (Bishop & Sanderford 2000; Sanderford & Bishop 2002).
Such high incidence of PONV is due to the close proximity of the operating field to the chemoreceptor trigger zone or the area postrema
These studies demonstrated that GDNF-family receptor a-like (GFRAL) served as a receptor of GDF15 signalling in the hindbrain (i.e., area postrema
and nucleus tractus solitarius) which was required for the metabolic effects of GDF15 [9-11].
She was diagnosed with NMO in 2016 after initially presenting with symptoms concerning for area postrema
syndrome, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing a spinal cord lesion from C2-T1 and a positive aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody.
Dorsal vagal complex (DVC) was considered as the central of the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of major organs of the human body , including dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and area postrema
Vomiting occurs after stimulation of either the vomiting center (VC), a central "control center" in the medulla near the respiratory center, or the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) in the area postrema
on the floor of the fourth ventricle.
PQ-induced conditioned taste aversion and weight loss have previously been shown to be mediated by the area postrema
of the hypothalamus [39, 40].