Hydroquinone is 1,4-dihydroxybenzene and a metabolite of arbutin
. (4) It has antibacterial, astringent, disinfectant, and antioxidant effects.
In the Malaysian study PRP was used as an adjuvant with Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and alpha arbutin
therapy, therefore the results are not true representative of efficacy of PRP in melasma.
in marjoram and oregano," Food Chemistry, vol.
In a proprietary study by the Seoul University Dermatology Research Center, Whitenol demonstrated superior efficacy compared to Vitamin C, Arbutin
, and Kojic acid on the inhibition of melanin synthesis.
In late 2016, Minnavi introduced their 7 Day Sheet Mask with their patented ingredient Whitenol, which is 400 times stronger than Arbutin
, a commonly used ingredient for brightening.
Haplotypes were tested by API 50CHB strips (BioMerieux, Inc., France) for utilization of the following substrates: glycerol, erythritol, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, ribose, D-xylose, L-xylose, Adonitol, B-methyl xyloside, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, L-sorbose, rhamnose, dulcitol, inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, L-methyl-D-mannoside, D-methyl-D-glucoside, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin
, aesculin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, Trehalose, gentiobiose, melibiose, raffinose, melezitose, starch, glycogen, inulin, D-turanose, D-tagatose, D-fucose, L-fucose, D-lyxose, D-arabitol, L-arabitol, xylitol, gluconate, and 2,5-ketogluconate.
Wu, "Experimental design and capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous analysis of arbutin
, kojic acid and hydroquinone in cosmetics," Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.
(AR), gallic acid (GA), hydroquinone (HQ), (+)-catechin hydrate (CH), vanillic acid (VA), caffeic acid (CA), syringic acid (SA), (-)-epicatechin (EC), vanillin (VL), p-coumaric acid (PCA), trans-ferulic acid (FA), myricetin (MC), ellagic acid (EA), trans-cinnamic acid (TCA), rosmarinic acid (RA), benzoic acid (BA), quercetin (QU), rutin hydrate (RH), and kaempferol (KF) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
Kunniaki, "Rosmarinic acid and arbutin
suppress osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting superoxide and NFATc1 downregulation in RAW 264.7 cellsRosmarinic acid and arbutin
suppress osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting superoxide and NFATc1 downregulation in RAW 264.7 cells," Biomedical Reports, vol.
Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin
. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 [micro]M.
Moreover, the most popular ingredients, such as kojic acid and arbutin
, were ineffective for black or Hispanic skin.
is a glycosylated hydroquinone found in large amounts in many plants, including those from the families of rosaceous, ericaceous, etc.