and Brown (2001) as a case of aposematism
, notwithstanding the different
There is significant evidence to support the predators as being potential selective agents in the evolution and/or maintenance of aposematism
in Oncopeltus, thus supporting the efficacy of automimicry.
It should be expected that aposematic individuals would have slower escape behaviors than cryptic ones in order to maximize the effectiveness of aposematism
(Jackson et at., 1976; Cooper et at., 2009).
(Brower 1958), industrial melanism (Kettlewell 1961), and mimicry (Jiggins et al.
and Batesian mimicry: measuring mimetic advantage in natural habitats.
3A) and their shiny and contrasting black coloration suggests they are unpalatable or poisonous to predators, being thus a case of aposematism
or warning coloration, produced through natural selection as originally proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace (Wallace 1879; Poulton 1890; Joron 2003).
Although much controversy remains over the theory of warning signals, the term "aposematism
," first used by Poulton (1890), is still widely defined as it was originally proposed--to describe the association between easily detectable conspicuous signals and unprofitability (Wallace, 1867; Darwin, 1871; Poulton, 1890; Cott, 1940; Merilaita and Kaitala, 2002; Mappes et al, 2005).
Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism
in An theraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.
Seed dispersal of mimetic fruits: parasitism, mutualism, aposematism
Evidence why Oreina and also the sister genus Chrysolina are more flexible in their host affiliations is still missing, yet it is tempting to speculate that the combination of autogenously produced defensive chemistry and aposematism
frees the beetles of possible constraints imposed by host plant-dependent crypsis or dependence on defensive plant compounds (as is possibly the case in Phyllobrotica and certainly in Tetraopes, B.
Predation pressure therefore, is one of the most important selective forces resulting in the evolution of escape behavior, crypsis, aposematism
, armor, chemical defense (Lima & Dill 1989) and possibly the most extreme defense: sacrificing a limb or other appendage to the predator (Arnold 1988).
: association of food toxicity with naturally occurring odor.