Consequently, Rivulus was considered to be the sister group to a clade including "Rivulus" and all other rivulids, which was diagnosed by an apomorphic
cartilaginous interhyal (vs.
gnemon, the female gametophyte consists of a plesiomorphic vacuolate micropylar zone with parietal placement of nuclei and a structurally apomorphic
densely cytoplasmic chalazal zone.
Nuclear genetic diversity based on amplified fragment-length polymorphisms was low for the population from Yuma County, Arizona; however, no apomorphic
fragment was detected.
the rare occurrence of an apomorphic
condition in a species usually exhibiting the plesiomorphic one, is equally plausible.
both with a strong vein M), the apomorphic
modifications in the wing venation of A.
By contrast, Bacillometroides exhibits apomorphic
character states for Andersen's Characters 1, 14 and 15 that would place it in a terminal clade of the Hydrometrinae as shown on Andersen's (1982) tree, with Hydrometra as its sister group.
sangi is a typical Carebara of the lignata group whose workers have a central hair as an apomorphic
edulis, is considered pleisiomorphic for bivalves (Salvini-Plawen and Steiner, 1996; Beninger and Dufour, 2000; Giribet and Wheeler, 2002); reduction in this abfrontal ciliation in other gill types is considered apomorphic
(Beninger and Dufour, 2000).
In that case, the Uropygi-synapomorphy hypothesis would depend on determining which shape of this structure is apomorphic
The claim that having eight segments is the plesiomorphic condition and nine segments the apomorphic
condition is also questionable, because the presence of nine antennal segments is characteristic of most basalclade Thysanoptera (Mound et al.
Comparison with other alvinocaridid taxa clearly suggests that the possession of suboperculiform antennae and the reduction of the rostrum are apomorphic
We feel that the morphology of plethodontid vertebrae is not understood well enough at present to conduct an apomorphic
approach to identifications.