The neural formula of Testudo costarricensis was coded by Coto and Acuna (1986) as apomorphic
relative to a plesiomorphic condition in Stylemys.
Previously, the subfamily was proposed to contain a derived "monophyletic" group of five genera (the "Nothochrysa group") that included Hypochrysa and that was supported by characters presumed to be apomorphic
. The four remaining genera, including Kimochrysa, were considered less derived and lacked apomorphic
This might suggest that the possession of ovaries with an unpaired structure by species in the family Pyrgodesmidae is an apomorphic
condition, which probably reflects the small size of individuals in this family (< 10 mm) and their short lifespan of about 3 months (Adis et al., 2000; Pinheiro et al., 2009).
The dorsal processes of the premaxillae are apomorphic
, being longer and more vertical than those of any extant or fossil salmonine.
The likely apomorphic
reversal of shape of the colobathristid forewings has probably co-evolved jointly with transformation of the shape of mesoscutellum.
Higher systematic placement of the material from Mene de Inciarte, Zulia State, Venezuela, to Toxodontidae is supported by apomorphic
characters preserved on the teeth.
Biramous limbs and nauplius larvae, apomorphic
characters for crustaceans, can readily be optimized on an evolutionary tree, showing students why these taxa and other crustaceans share taxonomic identity.
Thus, the presence of five stamens and five carpels is apomorphic
for subseries Pentandrae.
In fact this genus could be included within Neornithes on the basis of the following apomorphic
feature: humeral articular surface not extended sternally beyond the omal margin of the scapular cotyla (see figure 3).
The number of states per character ranged from 2 to 7, and the total number of apomorphic
states was 80.
They can be either ancestral states, termed plesiomorphic, or derived (descendant) states, termed apomorphic
. Determining what are plesiomorphic and what are apomorphic
states is central to phylogenetic systematics and is termed character polarisation (Cameron and Groves 2004: 107).
These characters were considered apomorphic
by Silva (2004).