P-gp is expressed in a variety of normal tissues such as the apical membrane
of blood-brain barrier (BBB), small intestine and kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, protecting the body from xenobiotics and regulating drug absorption and disposition (Fenner et al.
Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane
antigen 1 (AMA1) is a surface protein expressed during the asexual blood stage of P.
The active ingredient (antigen) is a membrane protein called apical membrane
antigen 1, from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.
An extensive endocytic apparatus, located in the apical membrane
of proximal tubule cells, plays a key role in the reabsorption and degradation of glomerular-filtered albumin and low-molecular-weight proteins (Marshansky et al.
Whole membrane and/or desmosomal staining were seen only in a few epithelia (transitional and stratified squamous), while in normal polarized epithelia such as gastrointestinal tract epithelium and ductal epithelium, RAAG12 expression was restricted primarily to the cytoplasm and apical membrane
CFTR at these sites regulates a chloride channel in the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger located in the apical membrane
and mediates the secretion of a bicarbonate-rich alkaline fluid that, in turn, maintains the solubility of secreted enzymes.
CFTR is expressed in the apical membrane
of various epithelial cells and functions as a phosphorylation-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels (2).
In this instance, scientists studied Apical Membrane
Antigen 1 (AMA1), a protein found on the cell membrane of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing the most deadly malaria.
The presence of apical membrane
infoldings provides increased surface area for export of proteins to form the cuticular intima of the pharynx.
To successfully study this ion channel target, we had to bring the bioassay to the target where it is most comfortable, the apical membrane
of a polarized epithelium simulated in in vitro 3D culture," continued Dr.
AQP-5 appeared mainly at the apical membrane
of mucous glands, basolateral membrane and basal membrane of serous acini.
The current model of absorption suggests that GLUT2 is rapidly inserted into the apical membrane
in response to glucose in the intestinal lumen (Kellett and Brot-Laroche, 2005).