apelin


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apelin

A peptide encoded by APLN on chromosome Xq25, which is a ligand for the G-coupled APJ receptor, and is expressed on a wide range of tissues including heart, lung, kidney, liver, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, and vascular endothelium.
Activities
• Angiogenesis Activates cell transduction cascade, leading to endothelial cell proliferation and formation of new blood vessels.
• Vasodilation Activates endothelial receptors which release NO, a vasodilator.
• Cardiogenesis Regulates embryonic cell migration leading to the formation of cardiomyocytes.
• Cardiovascular control Stimulates cardiac contractility, cardiac remodelling.
• Homeostasis Regulates hypothalamic messaging for pituitary hormone release, food and water intake.
• Gastrointestinal Inhibits histamine release by enterochromaffin-like cells, reducing acid secretion by parietal cells.
• Endocrine Regulates serum glucose via a relationship with insulin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Apelin, vaspin, visfatin and adiponectin in large for gestational age infants with insulin resistance.
The four genes network (figure 2C) was composed of the genes that codify for the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), aquaporin 1 (AQP1), the acidic form of the complement factor 4 (c4a), and the apelin receptor (APLNR).
Maternal and cord blood apelin, resistin and visfatin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Association of apelin, endoglin and endocan with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Adipose tissue also functions as an endocrine organ.11 Adipocytokines can be divided into two groups: "insulin resistance inducing factors," such as resistin, TNF-[alpha], and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and "insulin sensitivity inducing factors," such as leptin, adiponectin, apelin, and the recently identified visfatin.12 These cytokines are considered to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and cardiovascular events.13,14 Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin) is a novel adipocytokine that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism.15
Apelin is a bioactive peptide and an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor (APJ).
Sarcopenia, the age-related degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength, which may lead to frailty and disability in the elderly, may be slowed by exercise, likely through the action of apelin. (56,57)
Structural apelin analogues: mitochondrial ROS inhibition and cardiometabolic protection in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury.
Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure.
Some have been described to exert antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects (i.e., adiponectin, omentin, and apelin), whereas others have been suggested to have proinflammatory properties and to impair cardiovascular function (i.e., leptin, resistin, and fatty-acid-binding protein-4) (27).
Li et al., "Changes and relations of circulating visfatin, apelin, and resistin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects," Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol.