APAF1

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APAF1

A gene on chromosome 12q23.1 that encodes a cytoplasmic protein, which initiates apoptosis. Apoptotic peptidase-activating factor 1 contains several copies of the WD-40 domain, a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and an ATPase domain (NB-ARC). Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, APAF-1 forms an oligomeric apoptosome, which binds and cleaves caspase-9 preproprotein, releasing the activated form, which stimulates the caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis.
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Oridonin induces apoptosis in gastric cancer through Apaf-1, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathway.
Analysis of thecomposition, assembly kinetics and activity of native Apaf-1 apoptosomes.
So far 20 members of the NOD family have been reported, such as apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), NOD2, and disease-resistance proteins (R-protein), most representative of which is NOD1 and NOD2 [7-9].
HSP enhanced the tumorigenesis by regulating apoptotic pathways, for example, HSP70 could block Bax translocation to the mitochondria and prevent the release of cytochrome c; prevent recruitment of caspase-9 to the apoptosome by binding Apaf-1 [29].
Zhang et al., "Simultaneous modulation of COX-2, p300, Akt, and Apaf-1 signaling by melatonin to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells," Journal of Pineal Research, vol.
Migita et al., "An AAV-derived Apaf-1 dominant negative inhibitor prevents MPTP toxicity as antiapoptotic gene therapy for Parkinson's disease," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Briefly, the interaction between HK2 and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) reduces the release of proapoptotic proteins and prevents cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis [87]; phosphoglucose isomerase exerts its antiapoptosis effect by suppressing the expression of Apaf-1 and caspase-9 genes, thereby indirectly regulating the formation of the apoptosome [88, 89].
Como ejemplo de esto estan los estudios en Chile, de los genes APAF1, ASSP1, p73 y FHIT,p15, p16, ESR1, IGSF4, SOCS1(9); en Colombia, de los genes RARB y DAPK;CDKN2B y DBC1(10);en Brasil, del gen CDKN2B (p15) (11) y en Espana de CDH1, p73, p16, p15, p57, NES-1, DKK-3, CDH13, p14, TMS-1, Apaf-1, DAPK, Parkin, LATS-1(12).
Literaturde CDH-1, RASSF1A gibi genlerdeki hipermetilasyonun yuksek tumor sinifi ile APAF-1, IGFBP3, [p16.sup.INK4A], [p14.sup.ARF] metilasyonunun tumor rekurrensi ile RUNX-3, Myopodin metilasyonunun da tumor progresyonu ile iliskili olabilecegi gosterilmistir (46,47,48,49,50,51).
IRES elements have been identified in mRNAs encoding stress response proteins (proand antiapoptotic), such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1), B cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL), Bcl-2, Bag-1, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), p53, L-myc, N-myc, c-myc, and death-associated protein 5 (DAP5) [1, 8, 32-34].