aortic insufficiency

(redirected from Aortic valve regurgitation)

insufficiency

 [in″sŭ-fish´en-se]
inability to perform properly an allotted function; called also incompetence.
adrenal insufficiency abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
adrenocortical insufficiency abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also addison's disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
aortic insufficiency inadequate closure of the aortic valve, permitting aortic regurgitation.
coronary insufficiency decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also myocardial ischemia.
ileocecal insufficiency inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
mitral insufficiency inadequate closure of the mitral valve, permitting mitral regurgitation.
placental insufficiency dysfunction of the placenta, with reduction in the area of exchange of nutrients; it often leads to fetal growth retardation.
pulmonary valve insufficiency inadequate closure of the pulmonary valve, permitting pulmonic regurgitation.
respiratory insufficiency see respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency hypothyroidism.
tricuspid insufficiency incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve, resulting in tricuspid regurgitation.
valvular insufficiency failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing valvular regurgitation; see also aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency inadequate velopharyngeal closure, due to a condition such as cleft palate or muscular dysfunction, resulting in defective speech.
venous insufficiency inadequacy of the venous valves and impairment of venous return from the lower limbs (venous stasis), often with edema and sometimes with stasis ulcers at the ankle.

a·or·tic in·suf·fi·cien·cy

functional incompetence of the aortic valve, with resulting regurgitation of blood from the aorta during left ventricular diastole; may be congenital, inflammatory (for example, in rheumatic fever or SLE), or degenerative. See: aortic regurgitation.

aortic insufficiency

The reflow of blood back from the aorta into the left ventricle due to incompetency of the aortic valve.
 
Clinical findings
Dyspnoea on exertion, orthopnea, fatigue, ± angina, increased pulse pressure, systolic hypertension with increased afterload on left ventricle.
 
Aetiology
Congenital or acquired valve defect of either the aortic leaflets (infectious endocarditis, rheumatic fever) or the aortic root (annuloaortic ectasia, Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, collagen vascular disease, syphilis).
 
Examination
Increased pulse pressure (Corrigan’s pulse, Hill sign, Musset sign, Quincke’s pulse), systolic murmur, diastolic rumble (Austin Flint murmur over cardiac apex).
 
Workup
Doppler echocardiography to estimate severity of AR, confirmed by aortography.
 
Management
Early valve replacement surgery, guided by the ‘55 rule’—i.e., performed when the ejection fraction is < 55% and/or the end-systolic dimension = 55 mm.

a·or·tic re·gur·gi·ta·tion

(ā-ōr'tik rē-gŭr'ji-tā'shŭn)
Reflux of blood through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole.
Synonym(s): aortic insufficiency, Corrigan disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
The National Heart Center (NHC) of The Royal Hospital recently performed a minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) for a patient suffering from aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis.
Physical examination, a chest X-ray, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and TTE were routinely performed toverify complete occlusion and to identify any new-onset aortic valve regurgitation. After the intervention, patients were transferred to the general wards.
Echocardiographic examination revealed first-degree mitral valve regurgitation and very mild aortic valve regurgitation. Systolic function of the left ventricle was found to be normal (EF: 58%, FS:30%) and dilatation was not found in the left ventricle (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 41 mm, z score -1.37; left ventricular systolic diameter 28.8 mm, z score: 0.07).
Echocardiographic findings included moderate left atrial enlargement, severe mitral valve regurgitation (Figure 2), and aortic valve regurgitation. The PR interval was within a normal limit of 0.120 seconds for 5-6-year-old children.
Transthoracic echocardiography (Figure 2(a)) revealed aortic root dilatation (aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva: 45 mm), mild aortic valve regurgitation, and normal left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVED).
Aortitis is an infrequent cause of aortic root dilatation and aortic valve regurgitation, having been described several infectious and noninfectious etiologies for this yet not well-known entity [1].
All patients were operated by first author.In our study, we segregated patients into four main groups depending on presence or absence of aortic structural defect and degree of aortic valve regurgitation. Group-A comprised of nineteen (37%) patients who neither had aortic structural nor functional abnormality while GroupB had six (11.7%) patients, having aortic valve cusp prolapse without aortic regurgitation.
We also characterize FH valvulopathy as a combination of one or more of aortic root thickening, aortic valve regurgitation, stenosis or calcification, and mitral regurgitation which progresses with age on treatment but at a remarkably accelerated rate.
In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), leakage from the aorta into the LV during diastole leads to increased pressure and volume in the LV.
A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed multiple small mobile densities (3-4 mm) on the aortic valve and inner surface of the aortic graft with moderate aortic valve regurgitation. He also had circumferential thickening outside the aortic graft suggestive of a paragraft abscess.
Aortic valve regurgitation allows some of the blood that was just pumped out of the left ventricle to leak back into it.