At first, they ignored the quarks and antiquarks
that popped out of nowhere.
For example, as illustrated in Figure 1, the meson LFWF connects the off-the-invariant mass shell quark and antiquark
to the on-shell asymptotic physical meson state.
The discovery of yet other combinations of quarks and antiquarks
could illuminate the force that binds quarks and antiquarks
For one thing, it could end what had been a puzzling absence of evidence for particles with groupings containing more than three quarks or antiquarks
, which theorists for decades have been expecting to show up in accelerators.
The difference in [v.sub.2] between particles and their antiparticles has been attributed to the chiral magnetic effect in finite baryon-density matter , different [v.sub.2] of produced and transported particles , different rapidity distributions for quarks and antiquarks
, the conservation of baryon number, strangeness, and isospin , and different mean-field potentials acting on particles and their antiparticles [85-88].
Electrically charged leptons are formed when the color charges of quarks and antiquarks
with different flavors are annihilated, while neutrinos are formed when both the electric and color charges of quarks and antiquarks
with the same flavor are annihilated.
For instance, there could be yet-undiscovered heavy particles that interact differently with quarks than with antiquarks
, she says.
Here, [F.sup.(+).sub.q] and [F.sup.(-).sub.q] are the Fermi- Dirac distribution functions for quarks and antiquarks
, respectively, and B is the Bag constant.
1 describe the distribution of quarks and antiquarks
in the proton.
One clue would be a sudden outpouring of thousands of hadrons, which are particles made up of quarks and antiquarks
. Others would be specific patterns in the abundances of the different hadron types.
In order to investigate the temperature T and the chemical potential [mu] dependence in this model, let us consider a system of both quarks and antiquarks
in the thermodynamical equilibrium.
To describe the energies of all particles and antiparticles including quarks and antiquarks
, we can introduce a three-dimensional energy space.