At first, they ignored the quarks and antiquarks
that popped out of nowhere.
Recently, Zhang [14-15] considered the electric and color charges of quarks and antiquarks
as two forms of imaginary energy in analogy with mass as a form of real energy and developed a classical unification theory that unifies all natural fundamental interactions with four natural fundamental elements, which are radiation, mass, electric charge, and color charge.
Larger groupings of quarks and antiquarks
may have existed in the early universe and may persist today in extremely dense stars, says theorist Marek Karliner of Tel Aviv University.
For this reason, antiquarks
, whose monopole unit has the same sign as that of the baryonic core, are pushed out to the baryonic external region and are enclosed inside a larger volume.
In addition, we introduce a three-dimensional energy space to describe all types of matter or particles including quarks and antiquarks
the within-nucleon transition of a d-quark to a uquark, or the reverse, is associated with the formation of an antiquark
, without the requirement of GeV energies necessary to break apart the nucleus.
In this formulation, quarks and antiquarks
sit at points in a finite, four-dimensional lattice, and gluons correspond to the links between these points.
Also, we can define the strange antimatter as formed by a large number of antiquarks
bound together with an antielectron around them.
Created as pairs of top quarks and antiquarks
in collisions between protons and antiprotons moving at nearly the speed of light, these massive particles disintegrate almost immediately in ways that create a shower of other particles that can then be detected.
are characterized by an opposite electric charge so that the geometrical locus loop of the [bar.
It interacts with other quarks and antiquarks
created out of the vacuum as it separates from what's left of the proton.
Detailed matrix operations confirm that hadrons with quark-antiquark
pairs, three quarks, or three antiquarks
, are colorless combinations.