Miller, "Functional reconstitution of the mitochondrial [Ca.sup.2+]/[H.sup.+] antiporter
Letm1," The Journal of General Physiology, vol.
Li et al., "Overexpression of TaNHX3, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter
gene inwheat, enhances salt stress tolerance in tobacco by improving related physiological processes," Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol.
Progress has been made towards the understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance after the identification of the plasma membrane and vacuolar [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters
SOS1 and AtNHX1, the [Na.sup.+] transporter AtHKT1, and the vacuolar [H.sup.+]-PPase AVP1 from Arabidopsis.
So this work aimed to isolate a new plasma membrane [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporter
gene from Kosteletzkya virginica and investigate its characterizations, which might not only help to understand the salt tolerance mechanism but also provide valuable genes related to salt tolerance for molecular breeding of salt-tolerant crops.
The DTDST gene (also called SLC26A2) encodes the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST), which is a sulfate/chloride antiporter
. The primary source of sulfur for the sulfation pathway of proteoglycans is free S[O.sub.4.sup.2-], which is transported to the cytoplasm mainly by DTDST.
[Na.sup.+] sequestration into the vacuole depends on expression and activity of [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters
as well as on V-type [H.sup.+]-ATPase and [H.sup.+]-PPase.
Schubert, "The expression of the endogenous vacuolar [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters
in roots and shoots correlates positively with the salt resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)," Plant Science, vol.
Na+ exclusion and salt resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) are improved by the expression of endogenous vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters
in roots and shoots.
The ion-transporting cells, which are thought to be responsible for the blue crab's ability to hyperosmo-regulate in dilute seawater, contain a number of enzymes, cotransporters, antiporters
, and channel proteins that facilitate the movement of ions across the gill epithelium.
Nucleotide sugars enter the lumen of the Golgi via specific antiporters
. In the third stage, specific transferases attach the glycan in the ER and the Golgi.
[Na.sup.+] gradients may be regulated by the operation of secondary [Na.sup.+]-[H.sup.+] antiporters
on the tonoplast and plasma membranes (Blumwald and Poole, 1985; Barkla et al., 1995).
A novel intracellular K+/H+ antiporter
related to Na+/H+ antiporters
is important for K+ ion homeostasis in plants.