drug resistance

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resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.

drug re·sis·tance

the capacity of disease-causing microorganisms to withstand exposure to drugs previously toxic to them; acquired either through spontaneous mutation or by gradual selection of relatively resistant strains after drug exposure. Pathogenic microorganisms resist antibiotics by various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes (for example, β-lactamases) that chemically inactivate antibiotic molecules. In mixed infections of the respiratory tract, a β-lactamase (penicillinase) produced by one organism (for example, Haemophilus influenzae) can inactivate penicillin and so block its effectiveness against other organisms in the mixture that possess no resistance of their own (for example, group A β-hemolytic streptococci). Usually an organism that has acquired resistance to a given antibiotic is resistant to others in the same chemical class. Some bacteria transmit antibiotic resistance to their offspring not chromosomally but via plasmids, which lie outside the bacterial nucleus but perform certain genetic functions. Bacteria of one species can develop resistance to certain antibiotics by acquiring plasmids from bacteria of another species.

Drug resistance is a growing problem worldwide. Many strains of bacteria, fungi, and parasites have developed resistance, including pneumococci, gonococci, salmonellae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tinea tonsurans, and Plasmodium falciparum. In some parts of the U.S., 40% of pneumococcal isolates and 90% of staphylococci are resistant to penicillin. The prevalence of both vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has increased 20-fold during the past decade. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A β-hemolytic streptococci, to macrolide antibiotics has also increased rapidly. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones for respiratory and urinary tract infections has led to a steady decline in the susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative bacilli, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to these agents. Factors favoring development of drug resistance include inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics (for example, for viral infections); indiscriminate use of newly developed, extended-spectrum agents; irrational use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat β-hemolytic streptococcal infections; empiric prescribing of broad-spectrum agents for infections in certain populations (for example, children, the elderly, and residents of long-term care facilities); prescribing of sublethal and thus ineffective dosages; and failure of patients to complete courses of antibiotic treatment. Antimicrobial treatment that is begun empirically before results of cultures and sensitivity tests are available and does not include agents that are effective against resistant strains of organisms, increases morbidity and mortality. Infectious disease experts and public health authorities have called for restraint by primary care physicians in prescribing antibiotics, particularly in children and for uncomplicated upper respiratory infections, acute bronchitis (nearly always viral), and acute sinusitis and otitis media (in neither of which have reliable diagnostic criteria for bacterial infection been established). They have also stressed the importance of public education, because inappropriate expectations of patients or their parents have been a driving factor in antibiotic overuse by physicians. Administration of antibiotics to livestock animals, chiefly for disease prophylaxis and growth promotion, has also contributed to the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria.

drug resistance

The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand a drug to which they were once sensitive

drug re·sis·tance

(drŭg rĕ-zis'tăns)
The capacity of disease-causing pathogens to withstand drugs previously toxic to them; achieved by spontaneous mutation or through selective pressure after exposure to the drug in question.

drug re·sis·tance

(drŭg rĕ-zis'tăns)
Capacity of disease-causing microorganisms to withstand exposure to drugs previously toxic to them.
References in periodicals archive ?
'Strengthen governance related to antimicrobial use and Antimicrobial Resistance in food and agriculture and promote good practices in food and agriculture, human and animal systems and the prudent use of antimicrobials.'
Achieving global targets for antimicrobial resistance. Science (New York, NY), 2016.
Antimicrobial resistance genes tetA, tetB and ampC were most frequent and they were found in 42%, 28%, and 26% of isolates, respectively.
These vital medicines contributed in the advancement of modern healthcare, agriculture, and food production, but the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has put the substantial gains risk making it the world's biggest concern1,2.
Since antimicrobial resistance poses a global public health threat, the Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership was established by the World Health Organization and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative.
Kenya has developed and approved the National Policy and Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance and is building a national surveillance system.
"Selling unapproved, un-scrutinised antibiotics undermines measures in India to control antimicrobial resistance. Multinational companies should explain the sale of products in India that did not have the approval of their own national regulators and, in many cases, did not even have the approval of the Indian regulator", said lead author Patricia McGettigan.
Studies indicate that few new antibiotics are being developed to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, since antimicrobial resistance poses a huge threat to both human and animal health.
Few studies have been done in Chile regarding antimicrobial resistance in cattle--most antimicrobial resistance studies in Chile have been performed in animals such as poultry and swine (8,9).
Irresponsible prescription of antimicrobials (AMs) is the driving factor for the growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis.
PLANS ARE being developed to address New Zealand's response to the growing global issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
Understanding evolving bacterial resistance patterns is a key element in managing the rise of antimicrobial resistance. To that end, ATLAS can not only help physicians select the most appropriate treatment choices for their patients, but also enable global health authorities to develop data-driven antimicrobial resistance mitigation strategies.

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