antimetabolite

(redirected from Antimetabolites)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to Antimetabolites: topoisomerase inhibitors, plant alkaloids

antimetabolite

 [an″te-, an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt]
1. a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
2. a class of antineoplastic agents consisting of antimetabolites of substances required for cell growth and replication; the interference with cell function is phase specific, largely in the S phase of the cell cycle. The group includes cladribine, cytarabine, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, and thioguanine. See also antineoplastic therapy.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-me-tab'ō-līt),
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

(ăn′tē-mĭ-tăb′ə-līt′, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that closely resembles an essential metabolite and therefore inhibits physiological reactions involving that metabolite.

an′ti·met′a·bol′ic (-mĕt′ə-bŏl′ĭk) adj.

antimetabolite

Antimetabolic agent Pharmacology Any agent–eg, MTX, 6-mercaptopurine, thioguanine, 5-FU, gemcitabine that is a structural analogue of a native cell metabolite, which either inhibits the enzymes of a particular metabolic pathway or is incorporated during synthesis to produce defective product or prevents replication; anti-metabolites are used as chemotherapeutics, antivirals and as immunosuppressants, and include analogues of purines–eg azathioprine, pyrimidines, folic acid–eg aminopterin, MTX See Azathioprine, Methotrexate.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-mĕ-tab'ō-līt)
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; e.g., ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

An anticancer, or CYTOTOXIC, drug which acts by combining with essential enzymes within cancer cells so as to interfere with their metabolism and growth. To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.

Antimetabolite

A drug that interferes with a cell's growth or ability to multiply.
Mentioned in: Chemotherapy
References in periodicals archive ?
Antimetabolites, T-Cell Inhibitors and Alkylating Agents
Other types of antimetabolites interfere with proteins: L-Canavanine (L-CAV), a non-protein amino acid found in several plants of the family Fabaceae, is a structural homologue of L-arginine (LARG).
Isofol's lead clinical candidate, Modufolin, is predicted to improve the outlook for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with a range of antimetabolites. Isofol's ongoing clinical trials focus on colorectal cancer and osteosarcoma.
Exclusion criteria included eyes with uveitis, rubeotic eyes, and eyes which have had previous intraocular surgery or in which antimetabolite supplementation was to be used, the only demonstrable risk factor for failure in our patients was the prior use of topical anti-glaucoma medications and the two groups were selected keeping the factor distributed symmetrically.
Surgical treatment includes procedures used for treating glaucoma (argon laser trabeculoplasty, goniotomy, trabeculotomy, trabeculectomy with or without associated topical antimetabolites, surgery with implantation of glaucoma drainage devices and cyclocryotherapy or cyclophotocoagulation) and a prophylactic procedure (prophylactic goniotomy) [1, 13].
The advantages of canaloplasty over trabeculectomy include the following: (1) subconjunctival bleb formation in not required; (2) antimetabolites are not needed; (3) faster visual rehabilitation after surgery; (4) fewer and simplified postoperative follow-ups; (5) limited postoperative complications; and (6) postoperative results and IOP levels tend to be stable over time (at least up to five years based on our current cohort).
The thiopurine antimetabolites azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease; however, their administration at conventional doses is associated with adverse events and a lack of response in some patients.
From previously synthesized and biologically tested arginine analogues, three of them Cav, NCav, and sArg could act as its antimetabolites. They could be recognized by arginylate-tRNA synthetase as substrates and could be included in numerous biologically important peptides and proteins.
Antimetabolites, tubulin-binding agents, platinum drugs, amsacrine, L-asparaginase, interferons, steroids and other miscellaneous antitumour agents," Cancer Chemotherapy and Phar macology, vol.
These studies indicate that TGF-[beta]2 may naturally modify the antiscarring effects of antimetabolites in glaucoma filtration surgery (Cordeiro et al., 1999; 2000).
The use of these drugs during pregnancy has been a concern, because they are cytotoxic antimetabolites that are also used as anticancer drugs, albeit at higher doses than those used for IBD.
Different types of selection systems are available including genes conferring resistance to antibiotics, antimetabolites, herbicides, hormone biosynthesis and toxic levels of amino acids and their analogs.