antileukotriene

(redirected from Antileukotrienes)

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū'kō-trī'ēn),
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.

Leukotrienes are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, which is present in cell membranes. The cysteinyl leukotrienes, which are elaborated by bronchopulmonary mast cells, eosinophils, and probably alveolar macrophages, have been shown to mediate bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, hyperventilation in cold air, aspirin, and inhaled allergens. They act by stimulating a specific receptor, known as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor type 1 (CysLT1). Antileukotrienes having clinical usefulness in asthma include zileuton, which inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme critical in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, and leukotriene receptor antagonists (cinalukast, montelukast, zarirlukast, and others). Antileukotrienes reverse bronchconstriction in asthma to a lesser degree than β2-adrenergic agonists, but their effects are additive to those of the latter agents. In chronic asthma, antileukotrienes improve peak flow and FEV1 and reduce the frequency and severity of acute asthmatic attacks, the need for β2-agonists, and the need for corticosteroid rescue. They are particularly effective in the prophylaxis of asthma induced by exercise and aspirin. In contrast, many people with allergic asthma show little or no response. Antileukotrienes are not indicated in the treatment of an acute asthmatic attack or in mild, intermittent asthma controlled adequately with occasional use of inhaled β2-agonists. They have not been recommended as a substitute for inhaled corticosteroids in prophylaxis of asthma. Antileukotrienes are administered orally or by inhalation. Both onset and waning of clinical effects are gradual. Side-effects are minimal, but drug interactions may occur because of interference with cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Rare transitory elevations of hepatic aminotransferase have been reported with some agents.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interferes with leukotriene synthesis or antagonises leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may reduce the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation.

Antileukotrienes 
LTD4 receptor antagonists (Zafirkulast-Accolate)
 
Pros
LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma.
 
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor (Zileutron-Zyflo)
 
Pros
Asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
 
FLAP inhibitors (5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor)

Pros
Early and late responses and cold-induced asthma.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interfere with leukotriene synthesis or antagonize leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may ↓ the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation See Asthma, Leukotrienes, Zafirlukast, Zileuton.
Antileukotrienes
LTD4 receptor antagonists
Zafirkulast-Accolate® Benefits LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor
Zileutron-Zyflo®Benefits asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness
FLAP inhibitors
None are FDA-approved Benefits early and late responses and cold-induced asthma
.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The link between allergic rhinitis and asthma: A role for antileukotrienes? Can Respir J 2008; 15(2): 91-8.
At eleven years of age, she started having episodes of respiratory distress, wheezing, coughing, and stridor that lead to multiple hospitalizations despite therapy with [beta]2 long-acting agonists, antileukotrienes, and inhaled corticosteroids.
Browse Pulmonary Drugs Market by Drug Class (Anticholinergics, Antihistamines, Combination Drugs, Inhaled Corticosteroids, Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists, Short-Acting Beta2-Agonists, Vasodilators, Antibiotics, Antileukotrienes, Enzymes, MAbs), Application (Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma & COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Others), Distribution Channel (Drug Stores, E-commerce, Hospital Pharmacies, Retail Pharmacies) and Forecast 2017-2021 at https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/report/pulmonary-drugs-market/
Dahlen, "Treatment of asthma with antileukotrienes: first line or last resort therapy?," European Journal of Pharmacology, vol.
Airway remodelling consists of progressive structural changes in the composition, content and organisation of the cellular and molecular constituents of the airway wall.2 Although current asthma therapies are effective in reducing inflammation, airway remodelling is poorly responsive to current therapies, such as inhaled corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, and theophylline.3 For this reason, new therapeutic options are required.
Asthma guidelines agree that corticosteroids are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for use in asthma, and they have broader antiinflammatory activity than the more limited effect of the antileukotrienes. Leukotriene modifiers affect only one biochemical pathway--the lipoxygenase path and resulting leukotriene effects.
Antihistamines, cortisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, theophylline, cromolyn sodium, and antileukotrienes, such as Singulair or Accolate, are FDA approved for treatment of allergic diseases.
[sup][7],[10],[11],[12] Inhibition of cough is proved within 4 weeks of initiating therapy with ICS (800 [micro]g/d) in the vast majority of cases, [sup][3],[13],[14] although some patients may require oral corticosteroids or add-on antileukotrienes and antihistamines.
Perez-Yarza, "Benefit-risk assessment of antileukotrienes in the management of asthma," Drug Safety, vol.
Future metabolomics studies on the concentration level of LTC4/LTD4 and TRPC6 activity can evaluate the hypothesis of implication of DPEP1 deficiency in the pathogenesis of FSGS and a role for antileukotrienes (e.g., indomethacin) in treatment of FSGS.
Nevertheless, extensive review of the various studies has suggested, firstly, that ICS appear to have superior efficacy to antileukotrienes in many adults and children with asthma, and particularly those with moderate airway obstruction, such that guideline recommendations of ICS as preferred monotherapy appears appropriate [81, 82].
World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA): Chronic rhinitis (CR) drugs that are permitted and not permitted in sport Treatment WADA rules Antihistamines Permitted (WADA 2006) Antileukotrienes Permitted (WADA 2006) Oral steroids Prohibited Topical steroids Require an abbreviated therapeutic use exemption (WADA 2006) Oral beta-2 agonists Prohibited Inhaled salbutamol, Require an abbreviated therapeutic formoterol or use exemption salmeterol Ephedrine Prohibited methylephedrine Pseudoephedrine Prohibited Immunotherapy Permitted Treatment Notes Antihistamines Second-generation antihistamines should be preferred, to avoid cardiotoxic effects and somnolence.