ELISA

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assay

 [as´a]
determination of the purity of a substance or the amount of any particular constituent of a mixture.
biological assay bioassay; determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing the effects it has on animals with those of a reference standard.
CH50 assay a test of total complement activity as the capacity of serum to lyse a standard preparation of sheep red blood cells coated with antisheep erythrocyte antibody. The reciprocal of the dilution of serum that lyses 50 per cent of the erythrocytes is the whole complement titer in CH50 units per milliliter of serum.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant (antigen or antibody) and an immunoadsorbent (antigen or antibody bound to a solid support). A variety of methods are used for measuring the unknown concentration, such as either competitive binding between the labeled reactant and unlabeled unknown or a sandwich technique in which the unknown antigen binds both the immunoadsorbent and labeled antibody. One of the uses of ELISA is to screen blood for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus; a positive result indicates probable exposure to the virus and possibly that the virus is in the blood. Since false-positives can occur, a back-up test is used to confirm positive findings.
 ELISA: With antigen capture ELISA, the wells are coated with antibody to the virus. The sample containing virus (1) is added and, after washing several times, enzyme conjugated to an antibody to the virus is added (2). Finally, after a further cycle of washing, the enzyme's substrate (3) is added. A colored product is formed if the viral antigen is present in the sample (4). From Hart and Shears, 1997.
microhemagglutination assay–Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) a Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay using microtechniques; used in the detection of syphilis.
radioreceptor assay a radioligand assay in which a radiolabeled hormone is used to measure the concentration of specific cellular receptors for the hormone in tissue specimens, an example being radioassay of estrogen receptors in breast tissue.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay thyroid-stimulating hormone test.
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) a treponemal antigen serologic test for syphilis using tanned sheep red blood cells coated with antigen from the Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum and treated patient serum; it is similar in sensitivity and specificity to the FTA-ABS test. This test is not useful for individuals who have had syphilis in the past.

ELISA

(ĕ-lē'să),

ELISA

(ĭ-lī′zə, -sə)
n.
A sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody. It is often used as a diagnostic test to determine exposure to a particular infectious agent, such as the AIDS virus, by identifying antibodies present in a blood sample.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. An immunoenzymatic assay used to measure antigens and antibodies which approaches the sensitivity of RIA
Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster ‘turn-around time’, and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Lab medicine A heterogeneous immunoenzymatic assay that approaches the sensitivity of RIA Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster 'turn-around time', and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances; ELISA may be used to measure any antigen and antibody. See Avidin-biotin method, EMIT, RIA, Sandwich method.

ELISA

Abbreviation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

ELISA

see ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This test has been used a screening test for AIDS for many years and has also been used to detect gonorrhea bacteria.
Mentioned in: Gonorrhea
References in periodicals archive ?
Increased emphasis must be placed on identifying HIV infection in exposed infants in developing countries earlier than is possible with HIV antibody testing. This need is increasingly compelling as data emerge demonstrating the benefits of early ART among infants with HIV infection.
Accuracy of Antibody Testing -- and Denialist Arguments
With the recent growth in demand for AIDS antibody testing, largely from the relatively low-risk heterosexual population, the once-banned private for-profit clinics are coming forward to supply the test.
Unnecessary use of non-heparin anticoagulants may be exacerbated when turnaround time (TAT) of HIT antibody testing is delayed, due to batching of ELISA runs or extended TAT of the send-out specimen.
Symptomatic pregnant women with negative rRT-PCR results should receive both Zika virus IgM and dengue virus IgM antibody testing. If Zika virus rRT-PCR testing is requested from laboratories that do not have IgM antibody testing capacity or a process to forward specimens to another testing laboratory, storing of additional serum samples is recommended for IgM antibody testing in the event of a negative rRT-PCR result (12).
In an analysis of ovulatory subfertile women attending 38 clinics in the Netherlands, his study identified 1,882 who had undergone chlamydia antibody testing and tubal patency testing with either HSG or laparoscopy.
The CDC concedes that at least 40,000 "AIDS cases" were diagnosed on the basis of presumptive criteria--that is, without antibody testing, on the basis of diseases such as Kaposi's sarcoma.
Anti-idiotypic antibody testing, she says, will show that many of these patients who have until now been considered poor transplant candidates may in fact be ideal recipients.
In these cases, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibody testing can identify additional recent Zika virus infections (6, 7).
Contract award: delivery of tests for the presence of treponema pallidum, and testing for hiv antibody testing by enzyme immunoassay.
Intrinsic factor antibody testing, automated diagnosis of pernicious anemia.
These six had all shown multiple antibodies at the baseline screening, indicating a 100% sensitivity and 50% positive predictive value for multiple antibody testing (Diabetes Care 25[3]:505-11, 2002).