ELISA

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assay

 [as´a]
determination of the purity of a substance or the amount of any particular constituent of a mixture.
biological assay bioassay; determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing the effects it has on animals with those of a reference standard.
CH50 assay a test of total complement activity as the capacity of serum to lyse a standard preparation of sheep red blood cells coated with antisheep erythrocyte antibody. The reciprocal of the dilution of serum that lyses 50 per cent of the erythrocytes is the whole complement titer in CH50 units per milliliter of serum.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant (antigen or antibody) and an immunoadsorbent (antigen or antibody bound to a solid support). A variety of methods are used for measuring the unknown concentration, such as either competitive binding between the labeled reactant and unlabeled unknown or a sandwich technique in which the unknown antigen binds both the immunoadsorbent and labeled antibody. One of the uses of ELISA is to screen blood for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus; a positive result indicates probable exposure to the virus and possibly that the virus is in the blood. Since false-positives can occur, a back-up test is used to confirm positive findings.
 ELISA: With antigen capture ELISA, the wells are coated with antibody to the virus. The sample containing virus (1) is added and, after washing several times, enzyme conjugated to an antibody to the virus is added (2). Finally, after a further cycle of washing, the enzyme's substrate (3) is added. A colored product is formed if the viral antigen is present in the sample (4). From Hart and Shears, 1997.
microhemagglutination assay–Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) a Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay using microtechniques; used in the detection of syphilis.
radioreceptor assay a radioligand assay in which a radiolabeled hormone is used to measure the concentration of specific cellular receptors for the hormone in tissue specimens, an example being radioassay of estrogen receptors in breast tissue.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay thyroid-stimulating hormone test.
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) a treponemal antigen serologic test for syphilis using tanned sheep red blood cells coated with antigen from the Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum and treated patient serum; it is similar in sensitivity and specificity to the FTA-ABS test. This test is not useful for individuals who have had syphilis in the past.

ELISA

(ĕ-lē'să),

ELISA

(ĭ-lī′zə, -sə)
n.
A sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody. It is often used as a diagnostic test to determine exposure to a particular infectious agent, such as the AIDS virus, by identifying antibodies present in a blood sample.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. An immunoenzymatic assay used to measure antigens and antibodies which approaches the sensitivity of RIA
Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster ‘turn-around time’, and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Lab medicine A heterogeneous immunoenzymatic assay that approaches the sensitivity of RIA Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster 'turn-around time', and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances; ELISA may be used to measure any antigen and antibody. See Avidin-biotin method, EMIT, RIA, Sandwich method.

ELISA

Abbreviation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

ELISA

see ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This test has been used a screening test for AIDS for many years and has also been used to detect gonorrhea bacteria.
Mentioned in: Gonorrhea
References in periodicals archive ?
Request a Sample Copy of the Global Antinuclear Antibody Test Market Research Report @ https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/antinuclear-antibody-ana-test-market/request/rs1
During the 3 years following the launch of the elimination program in Georgia in 2015, the number of HCV antibody tests performed at NSPs increased nearly fivefold, and the number of persons with positive test results doubled, compared with the number with positive test results during 2006-2014.
Between November 2004 and January 2006, 138 children exposed to HIV in utero or found to have a positive HIV antibody test had their HIV status tested by the protocol described.
* Failure to adequately diagnose and adequately counsel AT to undertake an HIV antibody test exposed AT's sexual partner/s to the real risk of contracting a fatal disease.
Clinicians first perform a swab test, and if the test is negative, they perform another antibody test the following week.
In comparison, ultrasensitive p24 antigen testing identified 15 of 17 (88% sensitivity), standard p24 antigen testing identified 12 of 16 (75% sensitivity) and discordant rapid antibody tests identified 7 of 21 (33% sensitivity).
In some cases, an HIV antibody test result is indeterminate or equivocal, meaning HIV antibodies have not yet fully developed.
A validating cohort study compared peripheral blood samples m 181 patients aged >16 years with a clinical diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis confirmed by a positive heterophile antibody test with those from 181 similar patients with a negative test.
New rapid HIV tests--such as the finger-prick OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test and the newer oral version, OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test--fit the bill.
It is correct, that for the purposes of the algorithm, we have assumed that all persons with a positive heterophile antibody test had infectious mononucleosis and did not need to be routinely evaluated further virologically.
The authors wrongly contend that the HIV antibody test is plagued by false positives.
He also has been accused of seeking a patent on the antibody test for HIV for his personal gain.