antibiotic-associated diarrhea

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antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Antibiotic-associated colits, gastroenteritis Diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile, most often seen in a Pt taking antibiotics; many persons infected with.C difficile are asymptomatic; in others, a C difficile toxin causes diarrhea, abdominal pain, severe colitis, fever, ↑ WBCs, vomiting, dehydration and, with time, develop pseudomembranous colitis and perforation Management Lactobacillus GG therapy

an·ti·bi·ot·ic-as·so·ci·a·ted di·ar·rhe·a

(antē-bī-otik-ă-sōsē-ā-tĕd dīă-rēă)
Disordered production of liquid or oversoft fecal matter caused by the reaction of the gastric regions to introduction of an antibiotic that adversely affects intestinal flora.

antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Mild to moderate diarrhea in individuals taking oral antibiotics. The antibiotics destroy the normal flora in the gastrointestinal tract. See: pseudomembranous colitis
See also: diarrhea


rapid movement of fecal matter through the intestine resulting in poor absorption of water, nutritive elements and electrolytes, and producing abnormally frequent evacuation of watery droppings. The major causes are local irritation of the intestinal mucosa by infectious or chemical agents (gastroenteritis). In all types of diarrhea there is rapid evacuation of water and electrolytes resulting in a loss of these essential substances. Base (bicarbonate) especially is depleted by diarrhea, thus producing acidosis as well as fluid volume deficit.

acute idiopathic diarrhea
acute diarrhea syndromes in horses which are not diagnosable, such as salmonellosis, strongylosis, cyathostomiasis, Potomac horse fever, colitis-X, antibiotic-induced diarrhea (above), intestinal clostridiosis.
acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse
severe, acute diarrhea likely to be fatal may be related to stress or antibiotic therapy. See also colitis-X, intestinal clostridiosis, salmonellosis.
antibiotic-associated diarrhea
results from disruption of the normal bowel flora as a result of antimicrobial therapy for any reason. May occur as moderate diarrhea or as a life threatening syndrome often with severe colitis or pseudo-membranous colitis. See also antibiotic-associated colitis.
bovine virus diarrhea
see bovine virus diarrhea.
campylobacter diarrhea
watery diarrhea without other obvious signs and without other obvious cause in yearling sheep, calves and foals. Campylobacter fetus subspp. jejuni and intestinalis have been suggested as causes. See also winter dysentery.
chronic undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse
chronic, very watery diarrhea for very long periods but the horse has normal appetite and loses weight only gradually. Esthetically very displeasing to pleasure horse owners. Irreversible but not usually fatal.
ciliate diarrhea
colitis caused by troglodytella in primates.
dietary diarrhea
a result of dietary indiscretion; occurs in all species. It is caused by the chemical or physical nature of the ingested material. The commonest occurrence of the syndrome is in newborn animals, especially those who ingest too much milk. There is often a history of access to an oversupply of milk or of a recent change of source to an over-rich milk replacer or indigestible components in replacer. It is also caused by too-rapid drinking. Affected animals are bright and alert and have a normal appetite but the feces are voluminous, soft to fluid and evil-smelling. Secondary bacterial enteritis may ensue but most cases recover spontaneously when the diet is adjusted. Scavenging dogs and cats ('garbage eaters') commonly ingest food that is spoiled or to which they are unaccustomed, resulting in various degrees of vomiting or diarrhea. Called also dietetic scours.
effusion diarrhea
caused by an increase in the transepithelial hydrostatic pressure gradient, such as occurs in congestive heart failure and hepatic portal hypertension.
epizootic porcine diarrhea
at least two types of epidemic diarrhea occur in pigs which are not transmissible gastroenteritis or due to other known cause.
large bowel diarrhea
in dogs and cats, signs referable to the site of enteric disease responsible for the diarrhea being the large intestine include tenesmus, mucus, hematochezia, and increased frequency of defecation.
malabsorptive diarrhea
villous atrophy, such as occurs with some viral infections, causes malabsorption diarrhea because of the reduction in area of absorptive intestinal epithelium.
nursery diarrhea
see nursery diarrhea.
osmotic diarrhea
an overload of unabsorbed osmotically active particles will attract and retain water, increasing fecal volume and causing diarrhea. Associated with maldigestion, malabsorption, overeating, excessive carbohydrates or fats. The basis for the laxative effect of magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate or sodium phosphate.
psychogenic diarrhea
see irritable colon syndrome.
secretory diarrhea
derangement of normal secretory and absorptive functions of intestinal epithelium such as occurs with bacterial enterotoxins may result in excessive secretion and a resulting diarrhea. Escherichia coli is the prime example of an infection with this effect.
small bowel diarrhea
in dogs and cats, signs referable to the site of enteric disease responsible for the diarrhea being the small intestine include lack of tenesmus or mucus, increased fecal volume, melena and weight loss.
undifferentiated diarrhea of the newborn
the situation in which a newborn animal (less than 7 days old) has life-threatening acute diarrhea. There is insufficient time and it would cost too much to differentiate between all of the possible causes. Added to this is the common occurrence in which there are two or more agents present, often acting in concert. Because of the need to treat these cases urgently and effectively if their lives are to be saved it has become the practice to group them together for the purposes of treatment and prognosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Empiric treatment without testing (where testing is available) is not recommended, since only about 30% of hospitalized patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea will have CDI.
Consider probiotics for patients with acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
The use of probiotics was found to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, with a relative risk of 0.
A 2007 study did find that probiotics helped prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea, but the study was fairly small (Can.
The lactobacillus GG bacteria, they note, has been the subject of more than 250 clinical studies that have shown it to be extremely effective in managing such conditions as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, immune system support and atopic eczema.
A 1999 study showed that Lactobacillus GG also was effective in preventing the occurrence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
difficile, the bacteria responsible for most cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and antibiotic-associated pseudo-membranous colitis (PMC), was developed in response to recent studies showing that tests to detect both toxins A and B were more effective than assays to detect only 1 of the toxins.
Yet antibiotics have a number needed to harm (NNH) of about 10, if we define harm as antibiotic-associated diarrhea (3)--about the same NNH as in the hamburger story.
Probiotics Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium Difficile Infection
Research: Using the meta-analysis method, researchers evaluated 10 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies looking at the benefit of Lactobacillus bacteria in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in up to 30% of all hospitalized patients given antibiotics.

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