anticoagulant

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anticoagulant

 [an″te-, an″ti-ko-ag´u-lant]
1. serving to prevent the coagulation of blood.
2. any substance that, in vivo or in vitro, suppresses, delays, or nullifies coagulation of the blood.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution citrate phosphate dextrose adenine.
anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution citrate phosphate dextrose.
anticoagulant therapy the therapeutic use of anticoagulants to discourage formation of blood clots within a blood vessel. Its main purpose is preventive; however, thrombolytic action of an anticoagulant can destroy a clot and thereby improve the condition of the ischemic tissue supplied by the affected vessel. Conditions in which this therapy is used include occlusive vascular disease, such as coronary occlusion, cerebrovascular and venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. It is administered prophylactically when major surgery is planned for a patient with a history of arterial stasis, and for patients who must be immobilized for a prolonged period of time.

Anticoagulant agents include those that interfere with the formation of clots (antithrombotics), such as heparin and the coumarin compounds, and those that are capable of disintegrating thrombi that have already formed (thrombolytics), such as streptokinase and urokinase. A third group of anticoagulants, the antiplatelet agents, prevent the clumping together of platelets, a primary step in the formation of thrombi, especially in the cerebrovascular system. These agents are classified as antithrombocytics and are not to be confused with or used as a substitute for other types of anticoagulants.
Patient Care. The major difficulties that may arise during the course of anticoagulant therapy are hemorrhage and drug interaction. Observation of the patient for early signs of internal as well as external spontaneous bleeding is of primary importance. Health care personnel responsible for the care of these patients must be knowledgeable about the various laboratory tests and interpretation of their results in the administration of anticoagulant drugs and in assessment of the patient.

The effects of anticoagulants can be enhanced or inhibited by a variety of drugs and chemical compounds, especially the salicylates, barbiturates, and antibiotics. Ambulatory patients must be cautioned against taking any other drugs in combination with an anticoagulant agent without first consulting with the health care provider who prescribed the drug. This includes nonprescription or “over-the-counter” drugs as well as prescription drugs. Dietary restrictions such as fasting diets or those that limit the intake or utilization of the fat-soluble vitamin K can result in increased pharmacologic action of an anticoagulant.

The patient and family should be given adequate instruction in the purposes of anticoagulant therapy, the effects and side effects of other drugs and dietary intake on anticoagulant agents, and the need for regular contact with members of the health care team so that adequate monitoring of the patient's status can be continued as long as the patient is receiving an anticoagulant.

Instruction of the patient and significant others should include prevention of accidental injury, basic first aid measures to control bleeding should an accident occur, the danger signs that warrant immediate medical attention, and assurance that bleeding can be controlled. A Medic Alert bracelet should be worn to alert health care professionals in an emergency situation that the patient is taking anticoagulants.

Women of childbearing age need counseling about the effects of anticoagulants on contraceptive methods and reproduction. Those who are taking an anticoagulant for prevention of emboli cannot use oral contraceptives or an intrauterine device, which could cause endometrial bleeding. Should a patient think she is or desires to be pregnant, the primary care provider should be notified at once. Warfarin crosses the placental barrier and can cause fatal hemorrhage in the fetus. It can also enter the mother's milk and have an anticoagulant effect in the nursing baby. Heparin does not have these properties and can be substituted for warfarin when necessary.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'ū-lant),
1. Preventing coagulation.
2. An agent having such action (for example, warfarin).

anticoagulant

(ăn′tē-kō-ăg′yə-lənt, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that prevents the clotting of blood.
adj.
Acting as an anticoagulant.

an′ti·co·ag′u·la′tive (-lā′tĭv, -lə-tĭv) adj.

anticoagulant

Any substance that prevents coagulation of blood.
 
Fringe oncology
Some alternative health providers believe anticoagulants may be used to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer.

Haematology
Anticoagulants administered to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders include heparin, a parenteral agent which inactivates thrombin and other clotting factors, and oral anticoagulants (warfarin, dicumarol et al), which inhibit the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors.
 
Lab medicine
Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for lab analysis: heparin and substances that make Ca2+ unavailable for clotting (e.g., EDTA, citrate, oxalate, fluoride).
 
Medspeak, Vox populi
Blood thinner.
 
Transfusion medicine
Anticoagulant solutions used to preserve stored whole blood and blood fractions: ACD (acid citrate dextrose), CPD (citrate phosphate dextrose), CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) and heparin.

anticoagulant

A general term for any substance that prevents coagulation of blood Hematology Anticoagulants administered to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders include heparin, a parenteral agent which inactivates thrombin and other clotting factors and oral anticoagulants–warfarin, dicumarol et al, which inhibit the hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors Lab medicine Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for laboratory analysis: heparin and substances that make Ca2+ unavailable for clotting–eg, EDTA, citrate, oxalate, fluoride Medtalk Blood thinner Transfusion medicine Anticoagulant solutions used to preserve stored whole blood and blood fractions: ACD–acid citrate dextrose, CPD–citrate phosphate dextrose, CPDA-1–citrate phosphate dextrose adenine and heparin
Anticoagulants–categories & uses
  • Coumadin ® Prevent blood clot formation
  • Heparin Prevent blood clot formation
  • Thrombolytics, eg tPA, streptokinase–dissolve blood clots

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt)
1. Preventing coagulation.
2. An agent having such action (e.g., warfarin ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid).

anticoagulant

(ant?i-ko-ag'yu-lant) [ anti- + coagulant]
1. Delaying or preventing blood coagulation.
Enlarge picture
ANTICOAGULATION: Bruising and bleeding, common side effects of anticoagulation.
2. An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation. Common anticoagulants include heparin, sodium citrate, and warfarin sodium. See: illustration

coumarin anticoagulant

Any of a group of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit blood clotting by antagonizing the biosynthesis of vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors in the liver.
See: dicumarol; warfarin sodium

warfarin sodium anticoagulant

See: warfarin sodium

anticoagulant

A drug used to limit the normal clotting processes of the blood. Anticoagulants are used in conditions in which dangerous clots can form in blood vessels. Anticoagulant drugs include HEPARIN, LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN and WARFARIN. Anticoagulant treatment carries its own dangers, specifically those related to internal bleeding. The principal danger is of bleeding within the skull and resultant STROKE. The danger is greatest in elderly people with high blood pressure. This may be spontaneous or may follow quite minor trauma to the head. Careful control of dosage with regular blood checks of PROTHROMBIN TIME, and the avoidance of head injury, minimize the risk.

anticoagulant

a substance that hinders AGGLUTINATION or clotting of blood cells. BLOOD CLOTTING is a vital reaction to damage in the circulatory system, one of the steps in the process being dependent on the presence of calcium ions. However, the tendency of blood to clot can be overcome by suitable chemicals that remove calcium, such chemicals being used as anticoagulants when storage of blood is required. Many bloodsucking parasites such as mosquitoes secrete anticoagulants into the host's bloodstream, so enabling blood to be easily transported into the parasite's digestive system.

Anticoagulant

Drug used to prevent clot formation or to prevent a clot that has formed from enlarging. Anticoagulant drugs inhibit clot formation by blocking the action of clotting factors or platelets. Anticoagulant drugs fall into three groups: inhibitors of clotting factor synthesis, inhibitors of thrombin and antiplatelet drugs.

an·ti·co·ag·u·lant

(an'tē-kō-ag'yŭ-lănt)
An agent that prevents coagulation (e.g., warfarin).
References in periodicals archive ?
The findings indicated that the patients with atrial fibrillation (an abnormal heart rhythm), who were taking anti-coagulant drugs to prevent blood clots at the start of the study had a 29 per cent lower risk of developing dementia than patients, who were not on an anti-coagulant treatment.
The shorter peak times and elimination half-lives33 of these drugs may be superior to warfarin in peri-operative management, but clinical trials looking into the safety and efficacy of these drugs in patients on long-term anti-coagulant therapy during implantation procedures are currently lacking.
Ruff said that more than half of A-fib patients are either not on an anti-coagulant or on an ineffective dose.
In a preliminary hearing, Charlotte Jones, on behalf of the trust, had told the court that a "deliberate decision" had been made not to give Mrs Harrison fast acting anti-coagulants, as there was a risk of internal bleeding in her heart which could have had fatal consequences with a very rapid onset.
"I had a stiff calf and it got progressively worse," said Flintoff, who is on a course of anti-coagulants and will be on crutches for a minimum of one more month.
Anti-coagulants were used on 65 women during the second trimester (61 on an oral agent and 4 on heparin), and 60 received an anticoagulant during the third trimester (57 on an oral agent and 3 on heparin).
The plasma, fortified with anti-coagulants and antibiotics, was poured into a mould for freezing in a custom-built fridge.
'The guidelines as to the use of anti-coagulants are not as defined as they are in other parts of Europe and doctors still believe aspirin works.
However, this test lacks accuracy -- the sample would first require treatment with anti-coagulants, and the spinning causes the blood to separate.
`Spontaneous' haematoma is more commonly seen in elderly women, particularly if they arc taking anti-coagulants or have a chronic cough or cardiovascular disease [1, 2].
Once she scores, she injects you with her saliva, which contains anti-coagulants, agents that stop blood from clotting and keep it flowing while the mosquito gorges herself.