The desire to maintain a connection to the homeland in combination with anti-Chinese sentiment, marginalization, and exploitation in Cuban society led Chinese immigrants to band together as a community and thereby maintain a Chinese identity.
Examining anti-Japanese and anti-Chinese sentiment in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region in the past several decades, we show that the varying degrees of intensity in oppositional sentiments are determined by two dimensions: the nature of the great-power-dependent historical experience and the degree to which it has been politicized in the postwar period.
That ignited a mass movement, at a time when freedom of expression is becoming tolerated in Burma after decades of iron-fisted military rule and when anti-Chinese sentiment is rising across the country.
Diplomatic sources were quoted as saying China apparently backed down to avoid stoking anti-Chinese sentiment in South Korea and boost cooperation amid heightening tensions between China and Japan over a cluster of islets claimed by the two countries in the East China Sea.
They were carried into law books with fervent anti-Chinese sentiment, but when they arrived at the courts they posed individual liberty questions much different from the typical "Can we discriminate against these Chinese or not?