: A Durkheimian analysis of European normlessness.
Effects can be psychopathological or specific (completed suicide, attempted suicide, suicidal blackmail) or social and nonspecific (egoistic suicide, altruistic suicide, anomic suicide
The type of drive to anomic suicide
has great similarities with the anomic type already described by Durkheim in 1982 and with that one surging from the research done by Carmona, Tobon, Jaramillo and Areiza (2010a).
Altruistic suicide is a tendency for an individual to sacrifice self for the group, and anomic suicide
is a response to social change whether good or bad.
A recent study by Mamuro Iga relies upon psychological and attitudinal survey data to argue that contemporary Japan displays high levels of altruistic, fatalistic, and anomic suicide
. We try to corroborate Iga using 1980 ecological data from the 47 prefectures of Japan.
Consequently, Durkheim's conception of anomic suicide
is akin to the concept of involuntary student departure.
Suicide rates are also high when the degree of social regulation, i.e., the degree to which the desires and behaviors of the members of the society are controlled by societal norms and customs is very low (leading to anomic suicide
) or very high (leading to fatalistic suicide).
Because Durkheim wanted to demonstrate that the rate of suicide provided a way to measure social pathology, his typology was created to uncover the "regular and specific factor[s] in suicide in our modern societies." As Durkheim defined them, both anomie and egoism resulted from the collapse of traditional restraints and, thus, their incidence could be used as an index for social pathology: the rate of anomic suicide
measured alienation, while the rate of egoistic measured the decline of self-restraint.