nitazoxanide

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nitazoxanide

(nit-a-zox-a-nide) ,

Alinia

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiprotozoals
Pharmacologic: benzamides
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Treatment of diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.Not effective for C. Parvum diarrhea in HIV-infected patients.

Action

Interferes with electron transfer reaction necessary for anaerobic energy metabolism of offending organisms.

Therapeutic effects

Antiprotozoal action resulting in decreased diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly converted to tizoxanide which is the active metabolite; tizoxanide is further metabolized.
Distribution: Unknown.
Protein Binding: >99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Tizoxanide—excreted in urine, bile and feces; inactive metabolites excreted in urine, bile and feces.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknown†1–4 hr12 hr
†Onset of antidiarrheal activity is 24–48 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatic and/or renal impairment; Diabetics (contains 1.48 g sucrose/5 mL); Children <1 pregnancy or lactation (safety not established).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • yellow eye discoloration

Gastrointestinal

  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • discolored urine

Dermatologic

  • pruritus
  • sweating

Miscellaneous

  • fever

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May interact with other highly protein-bound drugs by competing for binding sites.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults and children ≥ 12 yr) 500 mg every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 4–11 yr) 200 mg (10 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 1–4 yr) 100 mg (5 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.

Availability

Tablets: 500 mg
Oral suspensionstrawberry: 100 mg/5 mL in 60 mL bottle

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and during therapy.
  • Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Diarrhea (Indications)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administer with food. Keep container tightly closed and shake well before each administration. Suspension may be stored at room temperature for 7 days; discard unused portion.
    • Pedi: Tablets contain more than pediatric dose; use solution for patients ≤12 years.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain to parents administration of medication and monitoring of condition.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Resolution of symptoms: no watery stools, no more than 2 soft stools within the past 24 hr and no unformed stools within the past 48 hr.

nitazoxanide

an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia.

nitazoxanide

A synthetic salicylamide derivative and antiprotozoal that is active against Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia infection, and which appears to also have activity against hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

nitazoxanide

A thiazolide anti-infective drug used to treat diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Blastocystis hominis , Clostridium difficile and rotavirus.
References in periodicals archive ?
There's some family here and a sole first cousin left in Jerusalem, where Jenny spent the first decade of her life (even after all these years, "I feel I'm Palestinian," she says, "I don't feel Cypriot"); and there's also the old theatrical family of fellow actors, especially Annita Santorineou and Lenia Sorokou who are both among her best friends.
And weird enough, these guys ordered us out of the vehicle and made us watch the entire drama," Annita said.
Being just 40 days away from the next presidential elections, the discussion (and level of conversation) has stooped to uninteresting, boring, obnoxious comments by one and all, with the exception being the fresh voice of Larnaca deputy Annita Demetriou.
I feel very proud and privileged to have been asked to design and deliver the Leadership, Communication and Coaching phase of this course, said Annita Clarke, a trainer with the United Kingdom Police.
ROACH Robert Rob was our brother, Sheila and Roger, sisterin-law to Annita.
Pictured were: Mr Thomasson, Nancy Thomasson, Mr Whittle, Annita Whittle, Liz Kidd, Mr Kidd, Janet Baker and Mr Baker.
2014 Peacefully on Nov 26, 2014 following a long illness, Des; much loved husband of Annita, devoted father of Stephanie, Victoria, Jacqueline, Gruffydd, Justin and Ceri, loving grandfather of Bethan, Emma, John, Jennifer, Callum, Connor and Catrin.
In a letter last month to Assembly of First Nations Chief Shawn Atleo, Tahltan Central Council President Annita McPhee wrote "We cannot sit by and watch and wait to see what the full impacts of the Fukushima disaster will be on our salmon and our way of life.
6651; GLASS BIRD SCULPTURES, GLASS SCULPTURE LIGHT, and HURRICANE PLATTER: by Elizabeth Robinson; JOURNALS: paper, shells, and beads by Annita Johnson--all Craftsmen's Guild of Mississippi; Front Porch: Interior Designer: ALLEN AND MIMI MARTINSON, Martinson's Garden Works and Urban Home in Ridgeland, 601.
Passed away peacefully in Scotland on 1st July 2012, aged 70 years, Alan, husband of the late Margy, much loved dad of Allison, Angela, Annita and Debbie, adored grandad of James and Kasey, fatherinlaw of Willie, Phil, Rob and Pete.
Para ello, conto con la fotografia de David Sansanz, la musica del guanajuatense Edgar Barroso (quien vive en Estados Unidos), la direccion de arte de Carlos Salom y el diseno de Annita Ribera.