animal model

(redirected from Animal models of disease)

an·i·mal mod·el

study in a population of laboratory animals that uses conditions in animals analogous to conditions of humans to simulate processes comparable with those that occur in human populations.

animal model

An animal that is an accidental or deliberate (though selective inbreeding) model of a human disease. Such models are experimental living systems that are used to study disease mechanisms and provide insight into possible therapies.

Animal models
• AIDS—SAIDS in macaque monkeys. 
• ALL—Immune deficient SCID mice. 
• Atherosclerosis—Watanabe rabbits. 
• Ceroid lipofuscinosis—Border collies.
• Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A—Pmp-22 mutant trembler-J mice.
• Congenital hyperbilirubinemia—Gunn rat enzymopathy.
• Congenital malignancy—Embryonal nephroma—pigs; hepatoblastoma—sheep; melanoma—darkly pigmented animals. 
• Crohn’s disease—Paratuberculosis/Johne’s disease, which affects dairy ruminants by Mycobacterium johnei.
• Cryptorchidism—dogs (castration).
• Cystinuria type I—Newfoundland dogs; Pebbles, a transgenic mouse model.
• Demyelination—Shiverer mouse.
• Diabetes insipidus—Brattleboro rats.
• Distichia—Cocker spaniels, dachshunds, bulldogs, Yorkshire terriers, poodles.
• End-organ resistance to normal hormones—Sebright bantam rooster.
• Endocardial fibrosis—Turkeys.
• Familial hypercholesterolaemia—Watanabe rabbits.
• Fibrosing alveolitis/Hamman-Rich disease—Bovine pulmonary disease. 
• GH-resistant dwarfism—Mini-mouse.
• Inherited giant platelet disorders—King Charles Spaniel dogs (Cavaliers).
• Kinky hair disease—Copper deficiency in sheep.
• Klinefelter syndrome—X-linked testicular feminisation in mice.
• Lymphocytic thyroiditis—Beagles, obese chickens, buffalo rats, primates.
• Lymphoma—Lymphosarcoma in dogs. 
• Malignant histiocytosis—Bernese Mountain dogs.
• Melanoma, spontaneously regressing—Sinclair swine.
• Mixed tumour (benign breast tumour)—Dogs.
• Muscular hypertrophy—Belgian blue cows.
• Myotonia congenita—Fainting goats.
• Neurolymphomatosis—Marek’s disease, induced by an oncogenic herpesvirus.
• Neuroplasticity—Aplysia, a marine mollusc.
• Osteopetrosis—Gray lethal mouse.
• Pacinian neurofibroma—Peking duck.
• Protothecosis—Collie dogs.
• Rheumatoid arthritis—Erysipelothrix-induced arthritis.
• Sleep apnea (obstructive)—English bulldog.
• Spermatocytic seminoma—old men and old dogs.
• Systemic lupus—NZB/NZW mice.
• Waardenburg syndrome—ferrets.

an·i·mal model

(an'i-măl mod'ĕl)
Study in a population of laboratory animals that uses conditions of animals analogous to conditions of humans to simulate processes comparable with those that occur in human populations.
References in periodicals archive ?
With systemic exposure to the drug compared between elderly and healthy volunteers, along with previous results in the Phase 1 study, the trial indicates that clinically tested doses achieve concentrations in the brain that are comparable with those associated with efficacy in animal models of disease.
PBT434 has been shown to reduce the abnormal accumulation of these proteins in animal models of disease by restoring normal iron balance in the brain.
The team next plans to develop more complex devices that include flow, pressure, and other measurement capabilities, in addition to electrical recording, and test them in animal models of disease, before moving into human testing.
They discovered that certain types of neuron transplants can rebalance nervous system activity, repair neural circuits, and rescue multiple animal models of disease. Neurona will use human stem cell derivatives for the treatment of diseases caused by dysregulated neural activity.
In addition, microgravity research has proven advantageous for producing higher-quality protein crystals for structure-based drug design and testing of new drugs in animal models of disease.
The function of the cell product is demonstrated often in one or more animal models of disease. Reversing or slowing progression of disease, and and/or demonstrating translational biomarkers (for example, insulin release in vivo from pancreatic cells in an animal model of diabetes) are key points in establishing an effective administration route, dose range and dose regimen, along with any other key factors such as cell engraftment, local migration, acute versus chronic effects and re-dosing as necessary to justify the clinical regimen.
"It will be interesting to determine how useful they can be in other animal models of disease and disorders and ultimately whether they have any clinical applications," he said.
Researchers working in neuroscience, biology, physiology, physics, and other sciences in Europe, North America, Israel, and Asia cover molecular tools for labeling receptors and cells and for optical readout and control of neural activity; application of these tools to study mechanisms of axonal propagation of excitation and synaptic transmission; the integration of synaptic inputs in neuronal dendrites; functional properties of neurons and neural circuits in brain slice preparations; studies of the dynamic properties of various glial cells; emerging approaches of performing high-resolution imaging studies during behavior; and examples of imaging studies in animal models of disease.
Additional insight can be gleaned via controlled human exposure studies (which examine individuals with a preexisting disease) and toxicologic studies using animal models of disease. The authors of the current study integrated these various lines of evidence to determine whether there was coherence of associations across the scientific disciplines.
Some 70 units are organized into eight chapters: drug discovery and development; receptor characterization; enzyme assays; isolated tissues; animal models of disease; pharmacokinetics; drug discovery technologies; and safety pharmacology and toxicology.
'We have had success in tissue culture, but translating those ideas to animal models of disease has been a barrier.