angiotensin

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angiotensin

 (ACE) [an″je-o-ten´sin]
a vasoconstrictive substance formed in the blood when renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. The enzymatic action of renin acts on angiotensinogen to form the decapeptide angiotensin I, which is relatively inactive. It in turn is acted upon by peptidases (converting enzymes), chiefly in the lungs, to form the octapeptide angiotensin II, a powerful vasopressor and a stimulator of aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. By its vasopressor action, it raises blood pressure and diminishes fluid loss in the kidney by restricting blood flow. Angiotensin II is hydrolyzed in various tissues to form heptapeptide angiotensin III, which has less vasopressor activity but more effect on the adrenal cortex.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes cleavage of a dipeptide from the C-terminal end of angiotensin I to form activated angiotensin II; called also peptidyl-dipeptidase A.
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors competitive inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and inactivates bradykinin. ACE inhibitors, such as captopril, are antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and potentiators of the kinin system and are used for treatment of hypertension, usually in conjunction with a diuretic. They are also used as vasodilators in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

an·gi·o·ten·sin

(an'jē-ō-ten'sin),
A family of peptides of known and similar sequence, with vasoconstrictive activity, produced by enzymatic action of renin on angiotensinogen. See: angiotensin I, angiotensin II, angiotensin III.

angiotensin

(ăn′jē-ō-tĕn′sĭn)
n.
Any of several polypeptide hormones, designated by Roman numerals, that are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, especially one of them, angiotensin II, which is a strong vasopressor.

angiotensin

(1) Angiotensin I.
(2) Angiotensin II.

angiotensin

Any of a family of vasoconstricting peptides

an·gi·o·ten·sin

(an'jē-ō-ten'sin)
A family of peptides with vasoconstrictive activity, produced by action of renin on angiotensinogen.

angiotensin

The vasoconstrictor polypeptide hormone, angiotensin II, which is released by the action of the enzyme renin. Its precursor, angiotensin I, is inactive until acted on by the angiotensin-converting enzyme, mainly in the lungs. Angiotensin II has a powerful effect on raising the blood pressure. It binds to angiotensin receptors and constricts the circular smooth muscle of blood vessel walls. It prompts cells of the adrenal cortex to secrete the hormone ALDOSTERONE. It modulates blood flow through the kidneys and acts directly on the heart muscle. By promoting raised blood pressure it encourages the development of the arterial disease ATHEROSCLEROSIS.

angiotensin

a substance, produced by the action of RENIN on a GLOBULIN protein molecule, that is found in blood plasma and which then stimulates the cortex of the ADRENAL GLAND to release ALDOSTERONE, causing a general constriction of smooth muscle.
References in periodicals archive ?
Angiotensin metabolite profiling with mass spectrometry.
Differences in angiotensin concentrations between therapy groups and different renin regulations were investigated as the primary objective.
Intracerbroventricular administration of angiotensin II increases heart rate in conscious trout.
Lack of specific inhibition of angiotensin II in eels by angiotensin antagonists.
Meta-analysis: Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease.
Partial escape of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition during prolonged ACE inhibitor treatment: Does it exist and does it affect the antihypertensive response?
Active renin content was measured by determining the amount of angiotensin I (Ang I) generated in the tissue homogenates measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as previously described [25].
Singh, "Role of angiotensin II in diabetic nephropathy," Kidney International Supplements, vol.
Benito-Martin et al., "Angiotensin II contributes to renal fibrosis independently of notch pathway activation," PLoS ONE, vol.
The end product of this pathway, angiotensin II, is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, and its effects are mediated primarily by the G protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 receptor (A[T.sub.1]R; Daugherty and Cassis 2004).
In addition to the well-known key functions of angiotensin II [angiotensin-(1-8) octapeptide] in the renin-angiotensin system, physiological activity has also been reported for the angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] heptapeptide (1).
We are given a limited sampling of the interesting and current investigations occurring in the field of angiotensin research, and likewise only a few of the many possible molecular biologic, physiologic, and other investigational techniques are considered.