Angiogenic factors, such as Ang1
and VEGF, are required for functional neovascularization in adult tissue in PAD patients .
Consequently, angiotensin 1 (ANG1
) is converted to angiotensin 2 (ANG2) through angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) .
The factors we selected could be clarified into the following groups: growth factors (VEGF-A, TGF-beta1, bFGF, PDGF-BB, and HGF), angiopoietin and receptor (ANG1
, ANG2, and TIE-2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13), chemokines (MCP-1 and GCP-2), inflammatory factors (IL-10 and IFN-gamma), angiogenesis inhibitor (Thrombospondin-1), and adipose-related factors (adiponectin, leptin, chemerin, and resistin).
) protein is a member of the novel angiopoietin growth factor family that binds to the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 and regulates several aspects of the angiogenic process, which is important for stabilizing the endothelium and reducing endothelial permeability .
These can include SCF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1
), IL-8, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL10, and osteopontin (OP), which in addition to recruit mast cell progenitors are also able to induce their maturation and activation [65-69].
Glycosylation sites (N) are shown at positions 92, 122, 154, 243, and 295 for ANG1
; positions 160 and 188 for ANGPTL1; and position 177 for ANGPTL4.
For groups A, B, C, D, and E, the relative expressions of Ang-1 mRNA were (1.0 [+ or -] 0.01), (2.36 [+ or -] 0.33), (4.25 [+ or -] 0.43), (2.44 [+ or -] 0.42), and (1.43 [+ or -]0.23), respectively, and the relative expressions of Ang1
protein were (0.15 [+ or -] 0.06), (0.61 [+ or -] 0.10), (0.99 [+ or -] 0.13), (0.59 [+ or -] 0.10), and (0.16 [+ or -] 0.07), respectively.
The research findings described in this media release can be found in the scientific journal Nature Communications, under the title, "Reprogramming Mouse Fibroblasts into Engraftable Myeloerythroid and Lymphoid Progenitors" by Hui Cheng1,*, Heather Yin-Kuan Ang1
,*, Chadi A EL Farran2,3, Pin Li1, Haitong Fang2, Tongming Liu1, Say Li Kong1, Michael Lingzi Chin1, Weiyin Ling1, Edwin Kok Hao Lim1, Hu Li4, Tara Huber1, Kyle M.
also promotes neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons and neuronal differentiation in neural progenitor cells [10, 11].
Patients with high levels of Ang1
and low levels of Tie2 were most likely to benefit from bevacizumab.
is involved in endothelial cell migration, adhesion, and the recruitment of pericytes and smooth muscle cells, while Ang-2 is vessel destabilizer .