Calvin cycle

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Fig. 86 Calvin cycle . The ‘dark’ reactions of the Calvin cycle.

Calvin cycle

a series of chemical reactions, first described by Melvin CALVIN, which take place in the watery matrix of CHLOROPLASTS, where carbon dioxide is incorporated into more complex molecules and eventually carbohydrate. Energy for the reactions is supplied by ATP with NADPH (see NADP acting as a reducing agent, both having been produced in the light reactions of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Since light is not required for the Calvin cycle to continue (provided CO2 ,ATP and NADPH are present) the steps are called the ‘dark’ reactions.

Every turn of the cycle fixes one molecule of carbon dioxide by producing two molecules of PGA and then two molecules of PGAL; three turns are necessary to release one molecule of PGAL (C3) for the glucose pathway with the remaining five PGAL molecules remaining within the cycle. Thus six turns produce sufficient quantities of PGAL for the production of one molecule of glucose (C3 + C3 = C6).

References in periodicals archive ?
Dave Shaw and Andy Benson raise a glass with Myrddin Davies of Menter a Busnes and Dafydd Elis-Thomas AM, Chair of the National Assembly's Environment and Sustainability Committee
Mark McGivern, Chris Lamont and Andy Benson have all been named in Harry Brokking's squad.
Factory worker Andy Benson, 32, Stockton: "He deserved the sack, but it wasn't just him that was to blame.
RAF Corporal Andy Benson, 33, has left behind capturing pictures of the Red Arrows to head for an operational tour of duty in southern Iraq.
Andy Benson, director at Wright Silverwood, a firm of chartered surveyors specialising in retail and leisure real estate, agreed with that assessment.
SUPPORT: From left, Ab Flag, Royal Navy; Cpl Andy Benson, RAF; Jim Flanagan, RBL and David Curtis, Army sell Poppies on Liverpool's Church Street Picture: JAMES MALONEY
The GB men - with Scots Mark McGivern, Andy Benson and Chris Lamont in their ranks - face Belarus and Israel in their firstround group as the long road begins to the finals, which will be held in Italy in 2010.
The Commanding Officer of FISC Yokosuka, CAPT Andy Benson conceived the concept of "operationalization" and subsequently directed the establishment of a more "hands-on, in-touch" Operations Department closely aligned with the fleet and joint forces operating in the Western Pacific who depend on FISC Yokosuka for their logistics needs.
Chris Lamont (Stap Orion) and Mark McGivern (Omniworld) - both based in Holland - are joined by Andy Benson, part of the GB Sheffield-based squad.
Andy Benson, from Huyton, a corporal in the RAF, is the official photographer for the flying aces of the Arrows but is spending his time with the Basra-based Combat Camera Team.
Captain Andy Benson provides a perspective on the development and content of these three key statements on Page 2 of this issue of the Newsletter.