Subsequent testing by CDC's Viral Special Pathogens Branch detected New World hantavirus by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Andes virus
by nucleic acid sequencing.
Doctors at a Delaware hospital diagnosed Andes virus
in a 29-year-old woman in January after she developed fever, malaise, and muscle pain.
Of note, hantavirus screening for military operating in the European field should ideally comprise all hitherto known Old World hantaviral pathogens, being HTNV, SEOV, PUUV, DOBV, and even Tula virus (TULV), bearing in mind that all classic serological techniques can suffer from cross-reactions, including even PUUV cross-reacting with its American, but genetically related counterparts SNV and Andes virus
Serum samples were maintained at -70[degrees]C until tested for hantavirus infection by IgG-ELISA using Sin Nombre virus (SNV) as antigen (Focus Diagnostics, USA) according to manufacturer's instructions; SNV cross reacts with many other New World hantaviruses including Andes virus
. Positive samples were also tested for leptospirosis by microagglutination test, dengue using IgM and IgG-ELISA (Focus Diagnostics), Rickettsia by Immunofluorescence (Focus Diagnostics), and thick smears for malaria.
(6) Only Andes virus
, which is endemic in South America, is capable of human-to-human transmission.
The virus responsible for HPS cases in Argentina, the Andes virus
, was described in 1995 as a new kind of hantavirus, capable of person-to-person transmission (6, 7).
First human isolate of hantavirus (Andes virus
) in the Americas.
Outbreak size distribution analysis has been applied to human case data for Andes virus
(24), monkeypox virus (20), and MERS-CoV (25) (Figure 3).
Genetic sequencing of material amplified from the autopsy tissue of one case-patient presumptively infected in one of these two regions identified Andes virus
as the etiologic agent (2).
Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects hamsters against lethal challenge with Andes virus
. J Virol.
The sole confirmed etiologic agent of HCPS in Chile is Andes virus
Phylogenetic analysis showed the virus to be an Andes virus
clade variant most similar to viruses within the Castelo dos Sonhos (CASV) group, which consists of CASV and CASV-2, found in Brazil, and Tunari virus (TUNV), found in Bolivia (Figure 2) (10).