Outbreak size distribution analysis has been applied to human case data for Andes virus
(24), monkeypox virus (20), and MERS-CoV (25) (Figure 3).
Serum samples were maintained at -70[degrees]C until tested for hantavirus infection by IgG-ELISA using Sin Nombre virus (SNV) as antigen (Focus Diagnostics, USA) according to manufacturer's instructions; SNV cross reacts with many other New World hantaviruses including Andes virus
6) Only Andes virus
, which is endemic in South America, is capable of human-to-human transmission.
The virus responsible for HPS cases in Argentina, the Andes virus
, was described in 1995 as a new kind of hantavirus, capable of person-to-person transmission (6, 7).
Genetic sequencing of material amplified from the autopsy tissue of one case-patient presumptively infected in one of these two regions identified Andes virus
as the etiologic agent (2).
Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects hamsters against lethal challenge with Andes virus
The sole confirmed etiologic agent of HCPS in Chile is Andes virus
Phylogenetic analysis showed the virus to be an Andes virus
clade variant most similar to viruses within the Castelo dos Sonhos (CASV) group, which consists of CASV and CASV-2, found in Brazil, and Tunari virus (TUNV), found in Bolivia (Figure 2) (10).
All known New World hantaviruses pathogenic to humans, including SNV and Andes virus
, cause HPS, in which the primary organ affected is the lungs.
HFRS is caused by the prototypic hantavirus Hantaan and by Dobrava virus, Puumala virus (PUUV), and Seoul virus in Eurasia; HCPS is caused by Andes virus
, Sin Nombre virus and related hantaviruses in the Americas.
HPS was subsequently identified in Brazil and other Latin American countries, which facilitated the recognition of new hantavirus species such as Laguna Negra virus (LNV), Andes virus
, Choclo virus, Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Castelo dos Sonhos virus, Anajatuba virus, as well as several other viruses detected in wild rodents which are not associated with HPS (3-9).
Hantaviruses are maintained in rodent reservoirs, and human exposure typically results from inhalation of aerosols from infectious urine or feces, although human-to-human transmission of Andes virus
(ANDV) has also been described (1).