Human ESC also make extensive use of glutaminolysis , which metabolic modelling suggests is likely used for ATP and synthesis of antioxidants (glutathione and NADPH), and anaplerotic
Vestermarket al., "Liver X receptor agonists augment human islet function through activation of anaplerotic
pathways and glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycling," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
However, quantification of anaplerotic reactions and glyoxylate shunt on the growth of C.
Anaplerotic reactions are responsible to maintain TCA pools which are utilized for lysine biosynthesis.
Gayen and Venkatesh included only PEP carboxylase as only anaplerotic reaction omitting glucogeneosis from their network.
glutamicum to study the fluxes of the anaplerotic reactions while the organism grows on mixed substrates of glucose and lactate.
Increased lactate concentration is an anaplerotic
effect of alkalaemia (33,34), operating as a feedback loop which buffers pH swings (35,36).
Non-autotrophic uses of dark-fixed carbon include involvement as a pH stat mechanism for reducing cytoplasmic ionic disequilibrium (Raven, 1986) or in anaplerotic
reactions related to nitrogen assimilation (Turpin et al., 1991).
A clear difference, however, was seen at the level of the cataplerotic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) and anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) both more abundant in rat beta cells (Figure 2(c)); again this is remarkable as the anaplerotic flux of glucose-carbon through PC is considered an important regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion based on rodent studies.
In rodents, this anaplerotic flux was quantitatively important and considered crucial for GSIS .
Stephanopoulos, "Effect of anaplerotic
fluxes and amino acid availability on hepatic lipoapoptosis," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
This is achieved either by being an anaplerotic
source in a complete TCA cycle, or as a direct bioenergetic substrate in a truncated cycle .