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Pharmacologic class: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocker

Therapeutic class: Immunomodulator, antirheumatic

Pregnancy risk category B


Inhibits binding of IL-1 with IL type I receptors, thereby mediating immunologic, inflammatory, and other physiologic responses


Prefilled glass syringes: 100 mg/0.67 ml

Indications and dosages

Moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis in patients ages 18 and older who don't respond to disease-modifying antirheumatics alone

Adults: 100 mg/day subcutaneously, given at same time each day


• Hypersensitivity to drug or Escherichia coli-derived protein

• Serious infections


Use cautiously in:

• immunosuppression, active infection, chronic illness, renal impairment

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.


Withhold drug and notify prescriber if patient shows signs or symptoms of active infection.

Use extreme caution if patient is concurrently receiving drugs that block tumor necrosis factor (TNF), because of increased risk of serious infection.

• Give entire dose from prefilled syringe.

• Don't freeze or shake syringe.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache

EENT: sinusitis

GI: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain

Hematologic: thrombocytopenia, neutropenia

Respiratory: upper respiratory tract infection

Skin: rash, pruritus, injection site reaction or bruising, rash, erythema, inflammation

Other: flulike symptoms, infections


Drug-drug. Etanercept, infliximab, other drugs that block TNF: increased risk of serious infection

Live-virus vaccines: vaccine inefficacy

Drug-diagnostic tests. Neutrophils: decreased count

Patient monitoring

• Monitor CBC with white cell differential.

• Assess injection site for reactions.

Patient teaching

Tell patient to immediately report signs or symptoms of infection.

• Advise patient to report signs and symptoms of allergic response.

• Instruct patient to take drug at same time each day for best response.

• Teach patient about proper drug disposal (in puncture-resistant container). Also caution him against reusing needles, syringes, and drug product.

• Tell patient not to freeze or shake drug.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


A human INTERLEUKIN-1-receptor antagonist used to combat the pro-inflammatory interleukins in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. A brand name is Kineret.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Serious infections were seen in clinical studies with concurrent use of anakinra (an interleukin-1 antagonist) and another TNF blocker, with no added benefit.
Anakinra, marketed as Kineret, appears to be particularly useful for the systemic manifestations of JIA, although Dr.
Anakinra, the third biologic therapy to be approved for moderate to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, may have some therapeutic advantages over its competition.
Amgen (Nasdaq:AMGN) has discovered that anakinra or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), an investigational rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy not yet approved by the U.S.
There is more evidence about the effectiveness of IL-1 antagonists, especially anakinra, as compared to other biological agents since the first report in 2006.
Dinarello, "Resistant Behccet disease responsive to anakinra," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.
M2 PHARMA-December 10, 2013-UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency grants licence to Anakinra
M2 EQUITYBITES-December 10, 2013-UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency grants licence to Anakinra
(11) It has also been suggested that hopeful results might be obtained through IL-1 antagonists, for example anakinra, a human recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, and canakinumab, which can be used as a monoclonal antibody against IL-1beta.
The introduction of biological agents, such as anti-TNF (etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab) and anti-IL-1 (anakinra, canakinumab, and rilonacept), has nonetheless opened up new interesting possibilities for the management of these heterogeneous disorders [14].