anabolic steroid

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Related to Anabolic-androgenic steroids: anabolic agent, Anabolic Steroid Use

steroid

 [ster´oid]
any of a group of lipids with a complex molecule containing carbon atoms in four interlocking rings forming a hydrogenated cyclopentophenanthrene-ring system; three of the rings contain six carbon atoms each and the fourth contains five. Steroids are important in body chemistry and include steroid hormones such as the gonadal or sex steroids, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids; vitamins of the D group; and the sterols, including cholesterol, the main building block of the steroid hormones in the body. The cardiac glycosides, a group of compounds derived from certain plants, are partly steroids.
anabolic steroid any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone having pronounced anabolic properties and relatively weak androgenic properties; they are used clinically mainly to promote growth and repair of body tissues in diseases or states promoting catabolism or tissue wasting.
gonadal steroid (sex steroid) a steroid hormone produced by a gonad, such as an androgen, estrogen, or progestational agent.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

a compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.

anabolic steroid

n.
Any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength. Nonprescription sale of anabolic steroids was declared illegal in the United States in 1990.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
 
Indications
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Route
Oral, parenteral.
 
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
 
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

Lab
ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Prescription drug used in treatment of the anemias and other disorders involving wasting of the body; it has been abused by some athletes to increase muscle mass; functions in a manner similar to that of the chief male hormone, testosterone. Masculinizing effects are minimized by synthetically manipulating chemical structure to emphasize tissue-building, nitrogen-retaining processes.
See also: ergogenic aid
Synonym(s): androgenic steroid.
[G. anabolē, something tossed up, a mound, fr. ana, up + ballein, to throw + steroid]

Anabolic steroid

Drugs, derived from the male sex hormones, which increase the rate of tissue growth. They are best known for increasing the rate of muscle development.
Mentioned in: Antianemia Drugs

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.
References in periodicals archive ?
Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: a case-control study.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are very rarely used medicinally these days as they have been replaced by superior more effective treatment (MRC, (1999).
Kindlundh, MS., J., Lindblom J., Bergstrom, L, Nyberg F., 2003, The anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone induces Alterations in the density of serotonergic 5ht1b an5ht2 receptors in the male rat brain.
Risk factors for illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use in male weightlifters: a cross-sectional cohort study Biol Psychiatry.
Steroid users believed that some advantage had been gained by using anabolic-androgenic steroids. Overall, 82% of steroid users felt they had improved to some degree, and 44% said they had improved "a lot" while using steroids.
Evaluation of Acute and Chronic Hepatotoxic Effects Exerted by Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Stanozolol in Adult Male Rats.
BAHRKE, M.S., YESALIS, C.E., BROWER, K.J., 1998, Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents, Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am,; 7: 821-838.
All of these 27 men had also used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), and 15 (56 percent) also reported current or past dependence on opioids, cocaine, and/or ecstasy.
NEW research carried out at Teesside University into the long-term effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids is beginning to show potential risks to the heart and certain aspects of memory.
Adverse cardiovascular effects from the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids as ergogenic resources.
Dr Heffernan added: "Our findings suggest that long-term use of anabolic-androgenic steroids has a significant impact on an individual's everyday memory and ability to remember.
It covers etiology, epidemiology, and evaluation; various types of drugs (alcohol, opioids, cocaine and crack, cannabis, amphetamines and other stimulants, sedative-hypnotics, hallucinogens, PCP, MDMA, designer drugs, inhalants, nicotine, caffeine, and anabolic-androgenic steroids); compulsive and addictive behaviors (eating disorders, gambling, sexual addiction, and internet addiction); and various treatment modalities, ranging from group therapy to acupuncture and including discussion of psychiatric comorbidities, medication interactions, relapse prevention, complications, training and education, and forensics.