anabolic steroid

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steroid

 [ster´oid]
any of a group of lipids with a complex molecule containing carbon atoms in four interlocking rings forming a hydrogenated cyclopentophenanthrene-ring system; three of the rings contain six carbon atoms each and the fourth contains five. Steroids are important in body chemistry and include steroid hormones such as the gonadal or sex steroids, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids; vitamins of the D group; and the sterols, including cholesterol, the main building block of the steroid hormones in the body. The cardiac glycosides, a group of compounds derived from certain plants, are partly steroids.
anabolic steroid any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone having pronounced anabolic properties and relatively weak androgenic properties; they are used clinically mainly to promote growth and repair of body tissues in diseases or states promoting catabolism or tissue wasting.
gonadal steroid (sex steroid) a steroid hormone produced by a gonad, such as an androgen, estrogen, or progestational agent.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

a compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.

anabolic steroid

n.
Any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength. Nonprescription sale of anabolic steroids was declared illegal in the United States in 1990.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
 
Indications
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Route
Oral, parenteral.
 
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
 
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

Lab
ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Prescription drug used in treatment of the anemias and other disorders involving wasting of the body; it has been abused by some athletes to increase muscle mass; functions in a manner similar to that of the chief male hormone, testosterone. Masculinizing effects are minimized by synthetically manipulating chemical structure to emphasize tissue-building, nitrogen-retaining processes.
See also: ergogenic aid
Synonym(s): androgenic steroid.
[G. anabolē, something tossed up, a mound, fr. ana, up + ballein, to throw + steroid]

Anabolic steroid

Drugs, derived from the male sex hormones, which increase the rate of tissue growth. They are best known for increasing the rate of muscle development.
Mentioned in: Antianemia Drugs

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.
References in periodicals archive ?
Reiter and coworkers [30] quantified changes in mRNA expression for a number of genes in bovine liver, muscle and uterus that are controlled by different xenobiotic anabolic agents. They found several regulated genes that were initial candidates for development of gene expression biomarkers [30].
Oliver Bilton Date of violation: 13/12/2014 Sport: Rugby Union Club: Cardiff Met National Governing Body: Welsh Rugby Union Rule violated: Presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete's sample Class of drug: Anabolic Agents Substance: Oxandrolone Start date of sanction: 13/12/2014 End date of sanction: 12/12/2016 Summary: The positive finding followed an in-competition test on December 13, 2014, following a Swalec Championship match between Cardiff Met and Narberth.
No rules have been applied in Kuwait regarding the testing of athletes for the use of anabolic agents, even though it is prohibited for personal and sports involvement.
Anabolic agents have the potency to augment bone mass and strength, improve bone quality to a greater degree than antiresorptive agents.
A number of antiresorptives and the anabolic agent teriparatide are available to individualize therapy, and it is expected that novel agents will provide opportunities to further optimize treatment approaches.
Tandem quadrupole LC-MS-MS can be particularly useful for analyzing anabolic agents, which can be challenging, as they must be confirmed at MRPLs of 2 ng/mL or lower in urine.
"We wholeheartedly support international competition and welcome the move in the US towards a harmonised model rule on the use of anabolic agents."
"This substance is banned under the 2005 World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, in the category S1, anabolic agents (or anabolic androgenic steroids).
The chapter briefly discusses all the substances prohibited by IOC including stimulants, narcotics, anabolic agents, diuretics, peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues, agents with anti-estrogenic activity, and masking agents.
Instrumentation Used for Doping Tests at 2004 Olympic Games Instrumentation # Substance Screened GC/MS (quadrupole) 25 Small molecules substances GC (NPD) 4 Low molecular-weight stimulants GC/HRMS (sector) 4 Low levels of anabolic agents GC/IRMS 2 Endogenous steroids LC/MS (Ion Trap) 6 Small polar compounds HPLC (UV-DAD) 1 Blood products Hematology Analyzer 3 Blood products Biochemical Analyzer 2 Glucose and protein Fluorimeter 1 Glucose and protein Flow Cytometer 1 Immunochemical blood cell analysis Mini SDS-PAGE 1 Proteins (EPO and blood products) Image Scanner 1 Proteins (EPO and blood products) Iso-electric Focusing 1 Proteins (EPO and blood products) ELISA System 1 hGH and hCG RIA Gamma-Counter 1 hGH and hCG
In this study, we assessed whether feedlot effluent contaminates watercourses by measuring a) total androgenic [methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalents] and estrogenic (17[beta]-estradiol equivalents) activity using the A-SCREEN and E-SCREEN bioassays and b) concentrations of anabolic agents via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and enzyme-based immunoassays.
In Brazil, clostebol acetate is present in medicines for dermatologic and gynecologic treatments, whereas in the US, the Food and Drug Administration does not approve of the use of medicines that contain anabolic agents.