DNA replication

(redirected from Amplification of DNA)

DNA replication

The formation of new and, hopefully, identical copies of complete genomes. DNA replication occurs every time a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Under the influence of enzymes, DNA unwinds and the two strands separate over short lengths to form numerous replication forks, each of which is called a replicon. The separated strands are temporarily sealed with protein to prevent re-attachment. A short RNA sequence called a primer is formed for each strand at the fork. These primers provide a free 3'-OH end on which the new complementary sequence can be formed along the strand. The LEADING STRAND is synthesized continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction, working towards the fork direction with removal of the RNA primers as the parental duplex is unwound. The LAGGING STRAND is synthesized discontinuously in the opposite direction as short fragments called Okazaki fragments. Lagging strand synthesis requires extension of the primer, then removal of the primers and gap filling. At least 20 different enzymes and factors, including DNA helicases, DNA polymerases, RNA primases, DNA TOPOISOMERASES and DNA ligases are involved in the complex process of DNA replication.

DNA replication

see DNA.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fingerprinting of bacterial genomes by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites.
The molecular method PCR was used for amplification of DNA.
Mystaire's MY-PCR Prep workstations provide laboratory technicians with a "personal cleanroom" for use in the amplification of DNA and RNA.
Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase.
The initial NGS sequencers, now termed second generation (2G), relied on the clonal amplification of DNA templates and generated data with very high throughput but short read lengths, amplification-based bias, and increased error rates.
KAPA Blood DNA Polymerase is the first DNA polymerase engineered specifically for the amplification of DNA directly from whole blood.
Universal primers for the PCR-mediated amplification of DNA a; a molecule associated with some monopartite begomoviruses.
Standard protocols include several steps of DNA extraction and purification prior to PCR amplification of DNA, which require much labor when the number of samples is large.
The AC600 Series PCR workstations are designed as application solutions for the manipulation and amplification of DNA and RNA.
Most other attempts to recover DNA sequences from historical or ancient samples have suffered from the risk of contamination, because they rely on amplification of DNA in the laboratory, Mark Pallen, a professor of Microbial Genomics at Warwick Medical School in the United Kingdom (http://www2.
This approach avoids the complex and unreliable workflows associated with culture of bacteria or amplification of DNA and draws on the remarkable throughput and ease of use of modern sequencing approaches.