ammonium

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Related to Ammonium salt: Quaternary ammonium salt

ammonium

 [ah-mo´ne-um]
a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate a mixture of ammonium compounds used as a liquefying expectorant in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and similar lung disorders. It is sometimes used as a reflex stimulant in “smelling salts” because of the strong ammonia odor it gives off.
ammonium chloride colorless or white crystals, with a cool, salty taste, used as an expectorant because it liquefies bronchial secretions. In the body it is changed to urea and hydrochloric acid, and thus is useful in acidifying the urine and increasing the rate of urine flow. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium lactate lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-yŭm),
An ion, NH4+, formed by combining NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); acts as a univalent metal in forming ammonium compounds.

ammonium

/am·mo·ni·um/ (ah-mo´ne-um) the hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate  a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and ammonium carbamate (NH2CO2NH4), used as a stimulant, as in smelling salts, and as an expectorant.
ammonium chloride  a systemic and urinary acidifying agent and diuretic, also used orally as an expectorant.
ammonium lactate  lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

ammonium (NH4+)

an ion formed by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with a hydrogen ion (H+). The ammonium ion is highly soluble in water but does not pass easily through cell membranes, as does the ammonia molecule, and its rate of excretion is influenced in part by the acidity of urine. The lower the pH, the greater the proportion of ammonium ions present, assuming a constant level of ammonia production from amino acid metabolism.

storage lesion

Transfusion medicine The constellation of changes occurring in a unit of packed red cells during storage. See Red cell preservatives.
Storage lesions
Ammonium to 470 µmol/L–US: 800 µg/dL
Free Hb in plasma from 82 to 6580 mg/L–US: 8.2 to 658 mg/dL
K+ from 4.2 to 78.5 mmol/L–US: 4.2 to 78.5 mEq/L
ATP from 100% to 45%
2,3 DPG to < 10% of original levels–replenished within 24 hours of transfusion
Labile proteins, eg complement, fibronectin and coagulation factors ↓ to negligible
Na+ from 169 to 111 mmol/L–US: 169 to 111 mEq/L
pH from 7.6 to 6.7
Adverse physiologic effects of stored blood is negligible in the absence of a previous compromise of the Pt's–recipient's status

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-ŭm)
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+; behaves as a univalent metal in forming compounds.

ammonium

a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals. See also ammonia.

ammonium acetate
a weak diuretic and feed supplement.
ammonium bifluoride
wood preservative; causes diarrhea and fall in milk yield in cattle.
ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride
saline expectorants used for the purpose of liquefying pulmonary secretions. Effectiveness has not been proven. They are sometimes used as a reflex stimulant because of the strong ammonia given off. The chloride salt is used mainly as a urinary acidifier. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium magnesium phosphate
see magnesium ammonium phosphate.
ammonium metavanadate
experimentally causes vanadium poisoning.
ammonium nitrate
causes nitrate poisoning.
ammonium oxalate
causes oxalate poisoning.
ammonium phosphate
a feed additive for cattle. The monobasic salt provides 27% phosphorus and 13% nitrogen, while the dibasic salt provides 23% phosphorus and 21% nitrogen.
ammonium sulfamate
used as a herbicide; cattle and deer eating treated plants may be poisoned.
ammonium sulfate
causes ammonia poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to investigate the influence of quaternary ammonium salts as swelling inhibiter for clay, the swelling rate of bentonite in different QAS solution were evaluated by bentonite linear expansion test.
The concept of hybrids protonation and complexation of nitrogen based organic compounds have been utilized in our previous studies to produce ILs named protic eutectic ILs (Shamsuri & Dzulkefly 2010), it similar protic and eutectic ILs have been made using a wide variety of quaternary ammonium salts, most notably imidazolium and choline cations.
becomes increasingly difficult as more silica and quaternary ammonium salt are added.
So, the quaternary ammonium compounds dimethyl-di(hydrogenated tallow) alkyl ammonium salt shows ease of crosslinking as compared to other primary amine modifier.
In this direction, in order to gain insight into neoteric material, a nano quaternary ammonium haloaluminate complex was synthesized by using an equal molar ratio of a quaternary ammonium salt and aluminum chloride compounds and then was identified by different experimental methods and finally was determined stable configuration of complex via an ab initio calculations.
9 ml 4) Sulfonation Temperature 0-100C 5) Time of addition of acid 10 minutes 6) Retention time 30 minutes Table 3 Sl No Name of the Salt Concentration 1 Sodium Salt 10% NaOH Solution 2 Ammonium Salt 1:1 N[H.
The pigment dispersing resin being a copolymer of polymerizable unsaturated monomer containing at least one kind of ionic functional group selected from the group consisting of tertiary amino group, quaternary ammonium salt and sulfonic acid group; nonionic polymerizable unsaturated monomer having polyoxyethylene chain; ultraviolet-absorbing polymerizable unsaturated monomer and/or ultraviolet-stabilizing polymerizable unsaturated monomer; and other ethylenically unsaturated monomer, the copolymer being a copolymerization product of 0.
A key difference between the SMA amic acid water solution and traditionally used ammonium salt solutions of acrylic or SMA resins is that the amic acid solutions contain no free amine or ammonium ion.
Other reports of using quaternary ammonium salt as the vulcanization accelerator for acrylic rubbers, fluoroelastomers, epoxy containing acrylic polymers and as an additive for rubber processing are also available (refs.
The resin is a copolymer of polymerizable unsaturated monomer containing at least one quaternary ammonium salt group; nonionic polymerizable unsaturated monomer having polyoxyethylene chain; and other ethylenically unsaturated monomer, wherein the copolymer is produced by the copolymerization of one to 15% by weight of quaternary ammonium salt group-containing polymerizable unsaturated monomer, five to 40% by weight of nonionic polymerizable unsaturated monomer and 45 to 94% by weight of other ethylenically unsaturated monomer on the basis of the total weight of monomers.