ammonium

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Related to Ammonium salt: Quaternary ammonium salt

ammonium

 [ah-mo´ne-um]
a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate a mixture of ammonium compounds used as a liquefying expectorant in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and similar lung disorders. It is sometimes used as a reflex stimulant in “smelling salts” because of the strong ammonia odor it gives off.
ammonium chloride colorless or white crystals, with a cool, salty taste, used as an expectorant because it liquefies bronchial secretions. In the body it is changed to urea and hydrochloric acid, and thus is useful in acidifying the urine and increasing the rate of urine flow. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium lactate lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-yŭm),
An ion, NH4+, formed by combining NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); acts as a univalent metal in forming ammonium compounds.

storage lesion

Transfusion medicine The constellation of changes occurring in a unit of packed red cells during storage. See Red cell preservatives.
Storage lesions
Ammonium to 470 µmol/L–US: 800 µg/dL
Free Hb in plasma from 82 to 6580 mg/L–US: 8.2 to 658 mg/dL
K+ from 4.2 to 78.5 mmol/L–US: 4.2 to 78.5 mEq/L
ATP from 100% to 45%
2,3 DPG to < 10% of original levels–replenished within 24 hours of transfusion
Labile proteins, eg complement, fibronectin and coagulation factors ↓ to negligible
Na+ from 169 to 111 mmol/L–US: 169 to 111 mEq/L
pH from 7.6 to 6.7
Adverse physiologic effects of stored blood is negligible in the absence of a previous compromise of the Pt's–recipient's status

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-ŭm)
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+; behaves as a univalent metal in forming compounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
Shalabi, "Electrochemical studies on the inhibition behavior of copper corrosion in pickling acid using quaternary ammonium salts," Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol.
The good water solubility of the three chitosan derivatives was due to two hydrophilic groups which are the carboxyl group with a negative charge and the quaternary ammonium salt with a positive charge.
Euczynski, "Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts," Microbiological Research, vol.
and aliph.), 1630 ([[delta].sub.OH], bentonite water), 1652-1419 ([[delta].sub.NH] ammonium salt and amide, [v.sub.CH] arom), 1040 ([v.sub.Si-O], bentonite), 525 ([[delta].sub.Si-O-Al], bentonite) [cm.sup.- 1].
A series of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) was synthesized using melamine and sodium chloroacetate as raw materials.
The concept of hybrids protonation and complexation of nitrogen based organic compounds have been utilized in our previous studies to produce ILs named protic eutectic ILs (Shamsuri & Dzulkefly 2010), it similar protic and eutectic ILs have been made using a wide variety of quaternary ammonium salts, most notably imidazolium and choline cations.
The substrate specificity of the enzyme from both the crude extract and post dialysis solution (ammonium salt precipitation) upon 3 different substrates: soluble starch, glycogen and dextrin.
"With the development of its new emulsifier technology, Dyneon is on track to be the first to achieve the goal of eliminating the use of PFOA, in particular, its ammonium salt, APFO, which has played a historical role as a polymerization aid in the manufacture of certain fluoropolymers," said Shome Bag, marketing specialist Energy & Environment 3M Gulf.
Biosafe HM-4100 from Biosafe, Inc., Pittsburgh, is a cationic quarternary ammonium salt. Until now, this type of antimicrobial was not used in plastics because it was available only in liquid form, which made it difficult to incorporate.
Figure 12 shows the correlation between the amount of ammonium salt left in the film and tape adhesion.
These findings make it necessary to provide labelling which gives consumers clear information on the presence of glycyrrhizinic acid and its ammonium salt in confectionery and beverages.
The manuscript is full of references to the aquila or eagle (the volatile principle or sal ammoniac), aqua fortis or "strong water" (mainly nitric acid), aqua vitae (concentrated alcohol, often distilled wine), "dragons," (symbolizing "the volatile and fixed principles [mercury and sulphur]," 253), sophic mercury (describing the universal agent of transmutation) and the urine of Saturn (an ammonium salt), just to name a few.