aminoglycoside

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Related to Aminoglycoside antibiotics: gentamicin, Macrolide antibiotics

aminoglycoside

 [ah-me″no-gli´ko-sīd]
any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. The group includes amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All are highly toxic, requiring frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd),
Any one of a group of bacteriocidal antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum and characterized by two or more amino sugars joined by a glycoside linkage to a central hexose; aminoglycosides act by causing misreading and inhibition of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes and are effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some commonly used aminoglycosides are streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin.

aminoglycoside

(ə-mē′nō-glī′kə-sīd′, ăm′ə-)
n.
Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as streptomycin, derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonospora bacteria and used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

aminoglycoside

Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin) which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
 
Pharmacodynamics
Poorly absorbed per os; poor penetration of CNS-BBB; rapid excretion if kidneys are normal.
 
Types
Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
 
Toxicity
Dose-related (kidneys, vestibular, auditory and neuromuscular systems), minor skin rash, drug fever, decreased Mg2+, decreased Ca2+, decreased K+; it is common practice to monitor patients receiving AGs.

aminoglycoside

Therapeutics Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics–amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin, which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria Pharmacodynamics Poorly absorbed per os, poor penetration of CNS–BBB, rapid excretion if kidneys are normal Types Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin Toxicity Dose-related–kidneys, vestibular, auditory, and neuromuscular systems, minor skin rash, drug fever, ↓ Mg2+, ↓ Ca2+, ↓ K+; it is common practice to monitor Pts receiving AGs. See Therapeutic drug monitoring.

aminoglycoside 

Any one of a group of antibiotics composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage which act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: framycetin, gentamicin, neomycin and tobramycin.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd)
Any bacteriocidal antibiotic derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum; effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of action against gram-negative bacterial infections and it is more recommended in severe cases (1).
R-factor mediated gentamicin resistance: a new enzyme which modifies aminoglycoside antibiotics. FEBS Lett 1971;14(5):293-296.
baumannii isolates were resistant to all aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin), 86% were resistant to a fluoroquinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin), 92.9% were resistant to both a third generation cephalosporin (ceftazidime), and a fourth generation cephalosporin (cefepime).
TABLE 1 Results From HPLC-MS Analysis of Antimicrobial Drugs That Exceeded the Threshold of Detection Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Gentamycin Neomycin ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) (Parameter: (Parameter: 50 [micro]g/kg) 20 [micro]g/kg) Kidney #90 2,900 -- Kidney #105 3,500 -- Kidney #212 -- 3,700 Kidney #217 -- 780 Kidney #244 -- 2,800 Tetracycline Antibiotics Oxytetracycline Tetracycline Chlortetracycline ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) (Parameter: (Parameter: (Parameter: 10 [micro]g/kg) 10 [micro]g/kg) 10 [micro]g/kg) Kidney #90 -- 83 1,100 Kidney #105 -- 80 1,200 Kidney #212 22 -- 12 Kidney #217 18 -- 14 Kidney #244 11 -- -- HPLC-MS = high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Block of P/Q-type calcium channels by therapeutic concentrations of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Biochemistry.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics have also been implicated in the precipitation of renal Fanconi syndrome and distal renal tubular acidosis [4-6].
However, the levels of these proteins involved in cellular response to aminoglycoside antibiotics as discussed above need to be checked during endoderm and hepatic differentiation as well to suggest whether similar regulatory mechanisms are functional during hepatic differentiation.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics operate via a concentration dependent killing and a postantibiotic effect.
Individuals carrying 1555A >G or 1494C > T mutation in the mitochondrial 12SrRNA are susceptible to aminoglycoside antibiotics, which can cause hypersensitivity and ototoxicity (Li et al., 2005).
The importance of this gene is elimination of synergistic effects between penicillin and glycopeptide or aminoglycoside antibiotics by encoding a bi functional enzyme (6,7).
The susceptibility to the aminoglycoside antibiotics was less when compared with the studies done by Jyothi et al., [16] Shrestha et al., [14] and Bhat et al.