aminoglycoside

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Related to Aminoglycoside antibiotics: gentamicin, Macrolide antibiotics

aminoglycoside

 [ah-me″no-gli´ko-sīd]
any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. The group includes amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All are highly toxic, requiring frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd),
Any one of a group of bacteriocidal antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum and characterized by two or more amino sugars joined by a glycoside linkage to a central hexose; aminoglycosides act by causing misreading and inhibition of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes and are effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some commonly used aminoglycosides are streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin.

aminoglycoside

/ami·no·gly·co·side/ (-gli´ko-sīd) any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin, gentamicin) derived from various species of Streptomyces or produced synthetically; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes.

aminoglycoside

(ə-mē′nō-glī′kə-sīd′, ăm′ə-)
n.
Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as streptomycin, derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonospora bacteria and used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

aminoglycoside

Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin) which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
 
Pharmacodynamics
Poorly absorbed per os; poor penetration of CNS-BBB; rapid excretion if kidneys are normal.
 
Types
Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
 
Toxicity
Dose-related (kidneys, vestibular, auditory and neuromuscular systems), minor skin rash, drug fever, decreased Mg2+, decreased Ca2+, decreased K+; it is common practice to monitor patients receiving AGs.

aminoglycoside

Therapeutics Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics–amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin, which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria Pharmacodynamics Poorly absorbed per os, poor penetration of CNS–BBB, rapid excretion if kidneys are normal Types Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin Toxicity Dose-related–kidneys, vestibular, auditory, and neuromuscular systems, minor skin rash, drug fever, ↓ Mg2+, ↓ Ca2+, ↓ K+; it is common practice to monitor Pts receiving AGs. See Therapeutic drug monitoring.

aminoglycoside 

Any one of a group of antibiotics composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage which act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: framycetin, gentamicin, neomycin and tobramycin.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd)
Any bacteriocidal antibiotic derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum; effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

aminoglycoside

any of a group of bacterial antibiotics derived from various species of Streptomyces that interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. These compounds contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars.
The aminoglycosides include gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, amikacin, kanamycin and neomycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All of the aminoglycoside antibiotics are highly toxic, requiring monitoring of blood serum levels at frequent intervals and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
References in periodicals archive ?
baumannii isolates were resistant to all aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin), 86% were resistant to a fluoroquinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin), 92.
TABLE 1 Results From HPLC-MS Analysis of Antimicrobial Drugs That Exceeded the Threshold of Detection Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Gentamycin Neomycin ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) (Parameter: (Parameter: 50 [micro]g/kg) 20 [micro]g/kg) Kidney #90 2,900 -- Kidney #105 3,500 -- Kidney #212 -- 3,700 Kidney #217 -- 780 Kidney #244 -- 2,800 Tetracycline Antibiotics Oxytetracycline Tetracycline Chlortetracycline ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) ([micro]g/kg) (Parameter: (Parameter: (Parameter: 10 [micro]g/kg) 10 [micro]g/kg) 10 [micro]g/kg) Kidney #90 -- 83 1,100 Kidney #105 -- 80 1,200 Kidney #212 22 -- 12 Kidney #217 18 -- 14 Kidney #244 11 -- -- HPLC-MS = high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
were the most sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics such as amikacin and gentamicin.
Since the discovery [2] of streptomycin in 1944, a series of related compounds like neomycin (1949), kanamycin (1957), paromomycin (1959), gentamicin (1963) and tobramycin (1968) have been added to the family of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin, are widely used in the treatment of gram-negative infections.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are direct renal toxins: in the surgical wards they, in combination with NSAIDs, proved particularly injurious.
26] Aminoglycoside antibiotics have been shown to enhance the generation of super oxide anion and hydrogen peroxide by renal cortical mitochondria.
Gentamicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics have been reported as highly effective against staphylococcal infections in dogs (Oliveira et al.
Although aminoglycoside antibiotics are some of the most commonly used agents for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections and tuberculosis, it has long been known that the major irreversible side effect of amino glycosides is ototoxicity.
The topics include a new perspective on retention processes in ion-exclusion chromatography, the ion chromatography analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics, analyzing pharmaceuticals for authenticity and adulteration, two-dimensional ion chromatography for simultaneously determining amino acids and carbohydrates, and analyzing biological products.
Most isolates were sensitive to sulfamethoxazole, beta-lactams and aminoglycoside antibiotics.