Amino acid

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amino

 [ah-me´no, am´ĭ-no]
the monovalent radical NH2, when not united with an acid radical.
amino acid any of a class of organic compounds containing the amino (NH2) and the carboxyl (COOH) groups, occurring naturally in plant and animal tissues and forming the chief constituents of protein. Twenty amino acids are necessary for protein synthesis. Eleven (the nonessential amino acids) can be synthesized by the human body and thus are not specifically required in the diet: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. Nine (the essential amino acids) cannot be synthesized by humans and thus are required in the diet: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
 Structural formulas for some representative amino acids. From Applegate, 2000.


Protein foods that provide the essential amino acids are known as complete proteins; these include proteins from animal sources, such as meat, eggs, fish, and milk. Proteins that cannot supply the body with all the essential amino acids are known as incomplete proteins; these are the vegetable proteins most abundantly found in legumes (peas and beans), as well as certain grains. Because different incomplete proteins lack different amino acids, specific combinations can provide all of the essential amino acids.

In certain inherited or acquired disorders of metabolism, specific amino acids accumulate in the blood (aminoacidemia) or are excreted in excess in the urine (aminoaciduria). Urinary amino acid levels are increased in liver disease, muscular dystrophies, phenylketonuria (PKU), lead poisoning, and folic acid deficiency.

a·mi·no ac·id (AA, aa),

(ă-mē'nō as'id),
An organic acid in which one of the hydrogen atoms on a carbon atom has been replaced by NH2. Usually refers to an aminocarboxylic acid. However, taurine is also an amino acid.
See also: α-amino acid.

amino acid

n.
Any of various compounds containing an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and a distinctive side chain, especially any of the 20 amino acids that link together to form proteins. Some amino acids (called nonessential) can be synthesized in the human body, while others (called essential) must be obtained through the diet.

ami·no ac·id

(AA, aa) (ă-mē'nō as'id)
An organic acid in which one of the hydrogen atoms on a carbon atom has been replaced by NH2. Usually refers to an aminocarboxylic acid. However, taurine is also an amino acid.
See also: alpha (α)-amino acid
Amino acidclick for a larger image
Fig. 28 Amino acid . Structure of a generalized amino acid.
Amino acidclick for a larger image
Fig. 27 Amino acid . The 20 amino acids commonly found in protein, with the three-letter and, in brackets, one-letter abbreviation for each.

amino acid

a building block of protein, containing a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2), both attached to the same carbon atom. Over 80 amino acids are known to occur naturally, with 20 found commonly in proteins (see Fig. 27 ), each with a different side chain, called an ‘R’ group (see Fig. 28 ). Each of these common amino acids is described under its own heading.

Many amino acids can be synthesized in the body from other amino acids by a process called TRANSAMINATION, although most organisms have a number of ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS that must be taken in with the diet. Each amino acid is coded by at least one triplet of DNA bases (see GENETIC CODE), and the string of amino acids making up a protein is joined by PEPTIDE BONDS to form a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN. The sequence of amino acids is the PRIMARY STRUCTURE. Amino acids are soluble in water but vary considerably in their solubility. When in solution they are ionized (see ZWITTERION) and generally are electrically neutral with a pH known as the ISOELECTRIC POINT. They are amphoteric, i.e. acting as acids or bases if the pH is shifted.

Amino acid

Amino acids are small molecules that are used as building blocks for all proteins. Some amino acids are also used in the body for the manufacture of hormones. There are about 20 nutritionally important amino acids, including glutamic acid, glycine, methionine, lysine, tryptophan, serine, and glycine.

ami·no ac·id

(aa) (ă-mē'nō as'id)
An organic acid in which one of the hydrogen atoms on a carbon atom has been replaced by NH2. Usually refers to an aminocarboxylic acid. However, taurine is also an amino acid.
See also: alpha (α)-amino acid

Patient discussion about Amino acid

Q. what are Amino Acids and what are their for? how do i need to do to keep it "going "?

A. Amino acids are the basic structural building units of proteins. They form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. The process of such formation from an mRNA template is known as translation, which is part of protein biosynthesis. Twenty amino acids are encoded by the standard genetic code and are called proteinogenic or standard amino acids. Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by post-translational modification, which is modification after translation in protein synthesis. These modifications are often essential for the function or regulation of a protein; for example, the carboxylation of glutamate allows for better binding of calcium cations, and the hydroxylation of proline is critical for maintaining connective tissues and responding to oxygen starvation. For full article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid Hope this helps.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The use of EC added with chitosan allows retention of the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of the common carp for more time during storage, diminishing the loss of moisture, bacterial growth, nutritional value, and speed of lipid and protein oxidation in oxidation products (hydroperoxides, lipoperoxidation, and carbonyl proteins), as well as an indication of the aminoacids present in the common carp fillet with EC, being an excellent alternative as an adjuvant in the conservation through freezing of aquatic species of economic importance on a global scale.
Salicylaldehyde (1.22 g, 10 mmol) in 10 ml ethanol was added to aminoacid solution and stirred for 3 h.
Abbreviations: AFA, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; MAAs, mycosporine like aminoacids; MAO-A, monoamine oxidase A; MAO-B, monoamine oxidase B; PC, phycocyanin; PEA, phenylethylamine.
Se enters the microalga cell by competing with S metabolism and finally getting incorporated into aminoacids (SeMet and SeCys) [14].
Various factors such as the child's age, genetic predisposition, level of fever, cytokines, changes in the level of aminoacids and trace elements, central thermoregulation disorders, a delay in central nervous system maturation, and infections are mentioned in its etiopathogenesis.
The functionalities included in package are; calculating number and percentage of nucleotide bases and aminoacids, AT, GC contents, drawing pie and bar charts, transcription, translation, constructing complementary and reverse complementary sequences, performing alignments, molecular weight of protein, isoelectric point, absorbance factor.SAP is freely available at http://bioanalysis.comli.com/.
Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned CP aminoacids generated a tree structure in which the viruses were divided into two groups, honeysuckle group and the tobacco group with each group being subdivided into two subgroups.
Presence of false neurotransmitters like branched chain aminoacids, accumulation of neuroinhibitory substances and manganese, different monoamines and endogenous opiates are also some of the contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy3,6.
The most frequent chemical abnormalities in these patients include increased serum concentration of bilirubins, bile salts, ammonium, lactate, free fatty acids, aromatic aminoacids, gamma-aminobutiric acid (false neurotransmmitter) and mercaptanes.
He said that quail eggs and meat were rich in vitamins, essential aminoacids, unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipid, which are vital for human physical and mental development.
However, in our evaluated sample, there was a preponderance of various errors of metabolism as a cause for chronic liver diseases, including storage disorders: glycogen and lipid storage disorders, in addition to errors of aminoacids and fatty acid metabolism.