Physiologists have described a number of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transport systems in mammals, including systems A (Christensen et al.
The genes that underlie amino acid transport systems like the well-described mammalian systems have been cloned and characterized in a wide range of organisms (e.
In contrast to the more detailed understanding of genes that regulate amino acid transport systems in model systems, far less is known about the corresponding genes involved in amino acid transport by marine invertebrates.
purpuratus, high-affinity amino acid transport systems are active throughout embryogenesis and larval development (Epel, 1972; Manahan et al.
A separate set of transport rate measurements was conducted to confirm the previously reported broad substrate specificity of amino acid transport systems in developing sea urchins (e.
The substrate specificity of neutral amino acid transport systems in sea urchin larvae was investigated by measuring the inhibition of alanine transport in the presence of other neutral amino acids present in molar excess.
Although physiological properties of amino acid transport systems have been described in detail for different developmental stages of echinoids (Tyler et al, 1966; Epel, 1972; Davis et al, 1985, 1988; Manahan et al.
The sodium dependency of these sea urchin genes is consistent with the extensive literature showing that integumental amino acid transport systems in echinoids and marine invertebrates, in general, are sodium-dependent (Epel.
Characterization of a broad-scope amino acid transport system in sand dollars.