American trypanosomiasis


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Related to American trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis

trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

South A·mer·i·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma (or Schizotrypanum) cruzi and transmitted by certain species of reduviid (triatomine) bugs. In its acute form, it is seen most frequently in young children, with swelling of the skin at the site of entry, most often the face, and regional lymph node enlargement; in its chronic form it can assume several aspects, commonly cardiomyopathy, but megacolon and megaesophagus also occur; natural reservoirs include dogs, armadillos, rodents, and other domestic, domiciliated, and wild mammals.

American trypanosomiasis

American sleeping sickness, agent T cruzi–Chagas' disease Vector Reduviid–kissing bug Clinical The acute form most commonly affects infants, causing malaise, fever, hepatosplenomegaly; the chronic or asymptomatic form is more subtle and is accompanied by altered cardiac conduction–the most common cause of CHF in South America, megaesophagus, megacolon Management Melarsoprol, a toxic agent used for end-stage meningoencephalitic disease or propoxydecanoic acid, a myristic acid analogue which is highly toxic to, and specific for trypanosome, eflornithine
References in periodicals archive ?
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease): a tropical disease now in the United States.
This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases.
In: Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis): its impact on transfusion and clinical medicine.
A few years later they were able to describe the pathological effects of American trypanosomiasis. An infection of variable severity in its earliest phase--in some cases even leading to the death of the patient--it remains latent for long years until it reappears as a chronic and debilitating heart condition.
Background: Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T.
They assessed two oral doses of posaconazole against standard-dose benznidazole in an open-label clinical trial involving 78 treatment-naive patients with chronic Chagas' disease, which is also known as American trypanosomiasis. At present, there are only two agents available for treating the chronic form of the disorder--benznidazole and nifurtimox--and both have daunting toxicity profiles.
American trypanosomiasis is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the 13 major neglected diseases in the tropical world constituting a serious social and economic impact in several countries, especially in Latin America.
Schofield, "The evolution of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery," Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.
(NTDs designated by WHO for control or elimination: Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cysticercosis/taeniasis, dengue / severe dengue, dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), echinococcosis, fascioliasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, trachoma, and yaws)
[ClickPress, Tue May 07 2013] Global Markets Direct's, 'Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - Pipeline Review, H1 2013', provides an overview of the indication's therapeutic pipeline.
de Picardie Jules Verne, France) explores the history of the identification and disease classification of Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis).

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