A guiding principle of the physical universe and understanding thereof, which holds that all that exists (and all phenomena can be explained) without recourse to supernatural concepts—i.e., all that exists in the universe can be explained by science.
Although his discussion of the vicissitudes of American naturalism is complex and multifaceted, the underlying thread of his argument is found in his account of the point at which the naturalists broke with Greek metaphysics.
Religion as a cultural force stunting individual autonomy is a common theme in American naturalism as illustrated by Crane's Maggie, Dreiser's American Tragedy, Farrell's Studs Lonigan, and Wright's Native Son.
Key elements of Norris's aesthetic, such as his description of the Muse of American naturalism in Responsibilities, indicate that he casts his lot with Jadwin's ideal declarations about women's freedom.
Richard Wright's Native Son is still usually taken as one of the foremost examples of late American naturalism, and much is made of the impact of modem sociology, particularly what became known as the Chicago School of Sociology, on the conception and shape of the novel.