Since in the highest density areas of avian retinas (Bravo & Pettigrew) the RGCs become smaller and distributed into multiple sublayers, as also reported previously (Coli et al.), the authors refer to the study of RGCs density by radial retinal sections to also identify the deeper RGCs and to distinguish them from the displaced amacrine cells
PRC, photoreceptor cell; GC, ganglion cell; AC, amacrine cell
; HC, horizontal cell; BC, bipolar cell; MC, Muller glial cell.
Barber, "Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells
in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Global modulation mediated by GABAergic amacrine cells
. Retinal GCs have spatially-tuned (center/ surround antagonistic) RFs.
(11) Oscillatory potentials may arise on top of the b-wave with increasing stimulus intensity (9) (see Figure 2); these occur due to amacrine cell
Thus, for example, the neuronal interconnections of Figure 1(a) are biologically plausible in the human retina and are given by ganglion and amacrine cells
, whereas those proposed in Figures 1(b), 1(c) and 1(d) could be found in cortical areas .
Retinal levels of BDNF are reduced in animal models of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and this reduction of BDNF is correlated with amacrine cell
They note: "Deletion of GSK3ss resulted in ss-catenin stabilization and MG proliferation without retinal injury," and that, "Intriguingly, after gene transfer of ss-catenin or Lin28, a subset of cell-cycle-reactivated MGs express markers for amacrine cells
, a type of retinal interneurons."
In the retina, Bves was expressed near RPE barrier and around the inner plexiform layer (Figure 2(k)), which is composed of the amacrine cells
and the ganglion cells.
NGF is produced and used in an autocrine/paracrine fashion by Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs), Bipolar and other retinal cell types (horizontal and amacrine cells
, MUller glia) .