Close relationships have been observed between 5-HT and GABA in vertebrates, such as the rabbit (Osborne & Beaton 1986) and the cat (Wassle & Chun 1988), with double-labeling studies demonstrating the coexistence of these 2 neurotransmitters in amacrine cells of the retina.
Dual expression of GABA or serotonin and dopamine in Xenopus amacrine cells is transient and may be regulated by laminar cues.
Cambridge, MA ChAT Amacrine cells Rabbit Ab143; Chemicon, 1:100 Temecula, CA Chx10 BCs Sheep x1180P; Exalpha 1:50 Biologicals Inc.
The density of choline acetyl-transferase-IR (ChAT-IR), [gamma]-aminobutyric acid-IR, and Disabled-1-IR (Dabl glycinergic AII) amacrine cells in control central INL was 1.
However, all those studies had failed to detect any regenerated inner retina nerve cells, except when the Muller glia cells were genetically modified with genes that specifically promote the formation of amacrine cells, which act as intermediaries in transmitting nerve signals.
This was puzzling, because in chicks amacrine cells are the primary retinal cells that are regenerated after injury," Reh said.
After two weeks, the team found no effect on blood vessels of the inner retina, but did find a significant increase in the number of dying cells of the inner and outer nuclear layers which include amacrine cells
that participate in transmitting the visual signal; Muller cells that also participate in the visual signal and support the photoreceptors; and, photoreceptors, which are responsible for color and night vision.
In the normal retina (Figure 6(a)), anti-GABA antibody labels the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the amacrine cells
located on the inner lamina of the INL, and the horizontal cells located on the outer lamina of the INL.
Dopamine is produced by a subset of amacrine cells
in the retina and generally functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Instead of the the eye's bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells
, which process the information gathered by the rods and cones, the electronic retina has "signal transfer gates, memories, logic gates and driver circuits,' each on its own silicon layer.
help collect and process information from the eye's photoreceptors - rods and cones.