The case is particularly interesting not only because altruism formed a central strand of the founder's strategy from the firm's inception, but also because the altruistic behavior
he exhibited was directed both toward family members and toward key nonfamily members of the business and its network.
So, how can educators increase students' altruistic behaviors
? There are multiple means for achieving this goal.
(17.) KOHN, supra note 9, at 210; Mark Richard Templeman, A Life History Study of Social, Psychological, and Structural Determinants of Extraordinary Altruistic Behavior
2 (unpublished dissertation, Purdue University, on file with the author).
Therefore, a school that emphasizes student participation in extracurricular clubs and activities could aid in the development of altruistic behaviors
for adolescents, even if those teenagers do not come from families with a strong religious emphasis.
Meaningful "big step" experiences often included comments related to self-efficacy, known to help promote altruistic behavior
This may be because contemporary societies tend to be structured so that altruistic behavior
also is at least consistent with--if not necessarily fully explained by--observable external incentives.
Since altruistic behavior
is an important feature of the economy, a natural, and important, question is to ask were it comes from.
include volunteering for extra work, helping new employees, and assisting employees who have been absent or who have heavy work loads (Cox, 1994).
As I have already argued, this conception is incompatible with altruistic behavior
. My defense of the volunteer takes a more Humean, subjectivist-internalist approach, accepting the role of a factor before ethics, for example, a desire, while maintaming that motivation requires no additional sanction.
The book includes chapters on the biogenetic foundations of human nature and society; the paradox of how the "selfish" gene can wind up "selecting" altruistic behavior
that enhances the cohesion of family or social group; the development and functions of consciousness in the human individual; the social functions of narrative in an evolutionary context; the evolution and adaptive social functions of tragedy and comedy; and an analysis of Iris Murdoch's A Fairly Honorable Defeat as an example of artfully mimetic narrative that clarifies social relationships on a holistic level while making them "less communicative in analytical terms" for largely left-hemisphere processing.
However, the analysis here will not consider why altruistic behavior
may occur, but will merely treat the existence of different forms of altruism as given.
A small body of research has established empirical relationships between childhood experiences and altruistic behavior
in adulthood (Clary and Miller 1986.