Clinical hypnosis is an altered state of awareness
, perception or consciousness that is used by licensed and trained doctors or masters prepared individuals for treating a psychological or physical problem.
The PCI allows one to operationally define phenomena typically referred to as states of consciousness and altered states of consciousness (ASCs), considered by Rock and Krippner (2012) to be more appropriately described as "altered states of phenomenology," by evaluating whether two necessary conditions for an ASC are satisfied: (a) the "pattern structure" (i.e., a covariance matrix of PCI major dimensions) for a treatment condition is significantly different from the pattern structure associated with a control or baseline condition, and (b) altered state of awareness scores are significantly higher for the treatment compared to control or baseline condition (Pekala & Kumar, 1986).
Analysis of the mediums' PCI responses after each condition revealed that scores in the reading condition were statistically significantly higher than those in the control condition with regard to the PCI major dimensions Negative Affect and Altered State of Awareness. In contrast, scores in the reading condition were statistically significantly lower than in the control condition with regard to major dimensions Self-Awareness, Volitional Control, and Memory (Rock & Beischel, 2008).
Hypnosis is an altered state of awareness
in which individuals withdraw their peripheral awareness and concentrate on a focal goal.
For these people, movies, novels, and the like may be especially gripping, and the moods they evoke particularly real." Thus, some individuals are more likely to experience an altered state of awareness when exposed to an appropriate stimulus (Pekala, 1991).
We propose that the unusual experiences factor may affect one's altered state of awareness during alcohol cue exposure.
The tools selected to measure the variables consisted of the awareness subscale of Barrett's (1983) Power as Knowing Participation in Change Test [PKPCT: A] for awareness; the energy factor of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List [AD-ACL: E]; Watson's (1993, 1999) Assessment of Dream Experience [ADE]; Altered Experience and Altered State of Awareness dimensions of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory [modified PCI: AE&AA] for wakefulness; the Field Dynamics Index [FDI] for human field motion; and Cantril's Ladder for WellBeing [CLW-B] well-being.
Wakefulness was measured as a combination of Watson's (1993, 1999) Assessment of Dream Experience [ADE], the energy subscale of Thayer's (1978) AD-ACL, and the altered experience and altered state of awareness subscales of Pekala's (1991) Modified Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory [PCI].
It includes listening to classical music in an altered state of awareness
, allowing the imagination to come to conscious awareness and sharing these awarenesses with a facilitator/guide.
The PCI contains 26 (sub) dimensions including 12 major dimensions (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Altered Experience, Visual Imagery, Attention, Self Awareness, Altered State of Awareness
, Internal Dialog, Rationality, Volitional Control, Memory and Arousal), and 14 minor dimensions (Joy, Sexual Excitement, Love, Anger, Sadness, Fear, Altered Body Image, Altered Time Sense, Altered Perception, Altered or Unusual Meaning, Amount of Imagery, Vividness of Imagery, Direction of Attention and Absorption; Pekala, 1985).
(2006) found that non-shamans administered monotonous drumming while "journeying" reported statistically significant alterations in phenomenology (i.e., fear, altered state of awareness
, arousal) compared to a control condition (i.e., sitting quietly with eyes open).
This experience consists of little negative affect; mild arousal, self-awareness and altered state of awareness
; moderate vividness of imagery and rationality; average internal dialogue, volitional control, altered experience, inward absorbed attention and positive affect; and a reasonably functional memory.