Age 25 yrs., Alcoholic, Chrome Alum Haematoxylin Stain (X400) Alpha cells, B--Beta cells
Non-Alcoholic, Azocarmine Stain (X400) Alpha cells, B--Beta cells
As compared to alpha cells
, both rat and human beta cells expressed 2 times higher levels of enolase 1 (ENO1) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform.
Group A showed islets, consisting of bluish staining beta cells in the central core and pink staining alpha cells
forming a mantle around it (Fig.
The researchers found that some of the insulin-producing cells also made glucagon, a hormone that is normally made by alpha cells
. The finding suggested that the beta cells in the mice had once been alpha cells
Thirdly, it has been well documented that GLP-1 analogs could suppress inappropriate secretion of glucagon from alpha cells
. However, despite certain controversy, there are some reports showing that incretin therapy may induce hyperplasia of pancreatic alpha cells
in human and rodent models [19-21].
However, the researchers were missing the second half of the pancreatic equation: cells, like alpha cells
, that sense blood sugar and secrete a hormone to offset insulin's effects.
The current method f producing beta cells leads to cells that resemble alpha cells
a little too much.
make glucagon, the hormone that raises blood sugar during fasting.
They have found that when the gene called Pax4 is forced on in pancreatic alpha cells
, the cells change their identity to become beta cells.
Produced by the alpha cells
in the pancreas, glucagon acts on the liver to help raise blood glucose when it becomes low.
has developed a synthetic molecule that is capable of stimulating growth and proliferation of pancreatic beta and alpha cell