(7) For Hans-Lukas Kieser, the Russian-Jewish-German socialist Alexander Parvus
connects Russia, Switzerland, and the Ottoman Empire, as well as Russian and German socialism, the Young Turks both in exile and in power, and the German Foreign Office during World War I.
Traverso reviews the positions of the principal Marxists in Germany and Austria -- Engels, Kautsky, August Bebel, Eduard Bernstein, Otto Bauer, Rosa Luxemburg, Franz Mehring, Alexander Parvus
, Victory Adler -- and he alludes more briefly to others.
A striking example of his attitude is revealed in his presentation of Alexander Parvus
(Alexander Israel Helphand), a Social-Democrat and an important Marxist theoretician.