Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.


(ălk-mē′ən) fl. sixth century bc.
Greek physician and philosopher. He was the first known anatomist and probably the first to perform scientific dissections of human bodies.
References in periodicals archive ?
Unlike, say, Alcmaeon, Democritus is not generally viewed as a 'doctor,' but many of his works have titles the same as, or similar to, several which are transmitted in the Hippocratic Corpus; it seems Democritus wrote on the nature of man or on flesh, on humors and on dietetics (A 33 DK [= Diogenes Laertius 9.
In pre-Hippocratic times, the philosopher-physician Alcmaeon of Croton (6th century BC) probably took the first tentative steps towards exploring the brain and nervous system.
The story centres on the return of legendary ladies' man Alcmaeon to his native city as he seeks the son and daughter he forsook at birth.
This was the late suffered by both the mythological characters Orestes and Alcmaeon, who killed their mothers to avenge their fathers.
Beare in Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition from Alcmaeon to Aristotle (Oxford: Clarendon, 1906) 131-59.
52) He also would have known that Alcmaeon the Pythagorean thought that the soul was immortal and that it "held itself in [continuous] motion like the sun.
Like his teacher Xenophanes and Alcmaeon, the Pythagorean, Parmenides could draw a distinction between the certainty of ultimate or divine knowledge and the uncertainty of sense experience, but it was the burden of Parmenides's philosophy to adopt the standpoint of what Alcmaeon and others would have identified as divine knowing.
He then tells how the necklace leads to the deaths of Eriphyle, Alcmaeon, and Phegeus, along with Phegeus' wife and sons; and to the enslavement of Callirrhoe (Lib.
The importance that humoral psychology would acquire for physiognomical thinking is apparent as early as in the fifth century, in the doctrines of Empedocles and of Alcmaeon.
Sworn to avenge his father's death with the Seven Against Thebes, Alcmaeon kills his treacherous mother and as punishment is driven mad by the Furies.
But it is only with Alcmaeon of Croton that we find an explicit theoretical formulation of the consequences of this alternation for the human organism:
Alcmaeon might have forgotten this vow, but Thersander, the son of Polynices, bribed his mother, Epiphyle, to urge him on, as she had earlier urged Amphiaraus.